SOILS IN INDIA, ANDHRA PRADESH
Soils are formed by the combination of weathered rock materials with humus. Soil is an important resource to an agricultural country like India. Soils form from the basis of human needs like food, clothing, etc. The prosperity of a country depends generally on the soils of that country.
There following are the soil types in Andhra Pradesh. They are Red Soils, Black Cotton Soils, Alluvial Soils and Laterite Soils.
Red soils spread over a larger area of the state. They are light and have water retaining capacity. They are very less fertile. Red soils are found in Telangana and Rayalaseema, a large area of Nellore and Visakhapatnam districts, and parts of East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Prakasam districts. Uplands crops like groundnut, horse gram etc., are grown in these soils. In the areas where irrigation facilities are available Cotton, Tobacco and various varieties of fruits are also grown in Red soils.
BLACK COTTON SOILS
These soils can absorb and retain water for longer duration. Black cotton soils are found in the Godavari valley from Adilabad district to Khammam district, Mahaboobnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, Nalagonda, Ranga Reddy districts, Rayalaseema districts and parts of West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur districts. Cotton is the chief crop grown these soils. Crops like Jowar, Bajra, Korra, Tobaco, Tumeric, Chillies, Sugar-can, Paddy, Plantain etc., are also grown in the irrigated areas.
Alluvial soils are formed with sand and Alluvium brought by river. These soils are spread over the deltas of Krishna, Godavari and Penna. These are very fertile soils. Paddy, Sugar-cane, Plantain, Guava, Lemon and Oranges are grown in these soils.
These soils are found in Zaheerabad area of Medak districts and in parts of Nellore, Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts. These soils are less fertile. Mango, Cashew and Tamarind trees are mainly grown in laterite soils. Turmeric and Potatoes are also grown.
In addition to the above soils, Sandy soils are found along the coastal areas of the state. Casuarina and Cashew groves are extensively grown in these sandy soils.
A brief details about Soils in India
TYPE OF SOIL
||Large parts of T.N, Karnataka, North East Andhra, M.P & Orissa.||Wheat, Rice, Millet, Pulses (needs fertilizer and irrigation).|
|2||Black Cotton Soil (or) Regur Soil
||Occurs mainly in Deccan trap covering large areas in Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu.|
||Large parts of T.N. Karnataka, North East Andhra, M.P & Orissa.|
||Karnataka, Summits of the Western and Eastern Ghats Malwa Plateau, Goa & Kerala.|
|5||Arid & Desert Soil|
|6||Saline & Alkaline Soil
|8||Peaty and other Organic Soil|