April 23, 2015

Andhra Pradesh important projects, Power and Irrigation, Flood Control, Thermal Power, Irrigation, Purpose of the the Projects and Beneficiary States


1 Bhakra Nangal Project

The Project consists of :
  • Bhakra Dam (second highest in the world) 518 meters long, 226 meters height
  • Nangal Dam
  • Nangal hydel channels
  • 4 power houses (Biggest in Asia)
Satluj (Hoshiarpur district in Punjab) Power and Irrigation Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.
2 Damodar Valley Corporation Project (DVC)

The Project consists of :
  • Tilaiya Dam
  • Konar Dam
  • Maithon Dam
  • Panchet Hill Dam
  • Power houses at Bokaro, Durgapur and Chandrapura
Damodar Power, Irrigation, Flood Control. Bihar and West Bengal shared by M.P.
3 Hirakud Dam Project

The main dam is 4800 meters long, 28.9 meters height (World's largest mainstream dam).
Mahanadi Power and Irrigation Orissa
4 Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra (Tributary of river Krishna) Power and Irrigation Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
5 Mayurakshi Project Mayura Kshi Power and Irrigation West Bengal
6 Nagarjunasagar Project Krishna Power and Irrigation Andhra Pradesh
7 Gandak River Project Gandak (Tributary of Ganga) Power and Irrigation Bihar, U.P., Nepal (Joint venture of India and Nepal)
8 Kosi Project Kosi Flood Control, Power and irrigation Bihar
9 Farakka Project Ganga, Bhagirathi Power, Irrigation avoid accumulation of silt to improve navigation West Bengal
10 Beas Project Units
  • Beas-Satluj link
  • Beas Dam at Pong
  • Beas transmission system
Beas Irrigation and power Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
11 Rajasthan Canal Project Satluj in Punjab, Beas and Ravi Irrigation Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana
12 Chambal Project Units
  • Gandhisagar Dam
  • Rana Pratap Sagar Dam
  • Jawahar Sagar Dam
Chambal Power and Irrigation Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
13 Kakrapara Project Tapti Irrigation Gujarat
14 Nagpur Power Station Koradi Thermal Power Maharashtra
15 Ukai Project Tapti Power and Irrigation Gujarat
16 Tawa Project Tawa (Narmada) Irrigation Madhya Pradesh
17 Pochampad Project Godavari Irrigation Andhra Pradesh
18 Malaprabha Project Malaprabha Irrigation Karnataka
19 Durgapur Project Damodar Irrigation, navigation between Kolkata and Raniganj West Bengal and Bihar
20 Mahi Mahi Irrigation Gujarat
21 Mahanadi Delta Project Mahanadi Irrigation Odisa
22 Idukki Project Periyar Hydro Electricity Kerala
23 Koyna Project Koyan Hydro Electricity Maharastra
24 Upper Krishna Project Krishna Irrigation Karnataka
25 Ramaganga Multipurpose Project Chuisot stream near Kala Power and Irrigation Uttar Pradesh
26 Matatilla Multipurpose Project Betwa Power and Irrigation Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
27 Tehri Dam Project Bhilangana, Bhagirath Hydro Electricity Uttar Pradesh
28 Narmada Sagar Valley Project Narmada - Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra
29 Obra Power Station Obra Thermal Power Uttar Pradesh
30 Rihand Scheme Rihand Hydro Electricity Uttar Pradesh
31 Kundah Project Kundah Hydro Electricity and irrigation Tamil Nadu

April 03, 2015

Tourisim in Andhra Pradesh, APTDC Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation, List of Tourist places in Andhra Pradesh


Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation - APTDC is a State Government agency which promotes tourism in Andhra Pradesh. Some of the important tourist places in Andhra Pradesh includes, TTD, Srisailam, Charminar at Hyderabad, Husain sagar at Hyderabad, Golkonda Fort, Rishikonda beach at Vizag, Basara, Dharmapuri, Kaleswaram, Vemulawada, Nangnuru, Hanumakonda, Ramappa Temple, Bodhan, Yadagirigutta, Bugga Rameswaram, Bhadrachalam, Medak Church, Charminar, Macca mosque, Pancharamas, Kotappakonda, Mangalagiri, Chejerla, Nagarjuna Konda, Lepakshi, Puttaparthi, Ahobilam, Mahanandi, Mantralayam, Upamaka, Mukhalingam, Dwaraka Tirumala, Srikalahasthi, Annavaram, Arasavalli, Antarvedi, Ryali, Undavalli.


Basara is situated in Adilabad district. It is famous for Saraswathi Temple located on the bank of the river Godavari. This is one among the three Saraswathi Temples in India. Other two are located at Kashmir and Sringeri.


It is placed in Karimnagar district. It is famous for the temple of Lakshmi Narasimha Swami, located at the banks of the river Godavari.


It is situated in Karimnagar district. It is also called as DAKSHINA KASI. It has the history of two thousand years.


It is situated in Karimnagar district. It is known for the temple of Sri Raja Rajeswara Swami. Vemulawada Bhimakavi, who is contemporary to Nannaya, belongs to this place.


It is a village in Karimnagar district. There is a belief among the people that, the Eastern Chalukya king Raja Raja Narendra constructed 400 temples here.That is why this place is called on Nangnuru. At present there are only some black marble temples with extra ordinary architecture. One Silastupa was discovered here during excavations conducted here. On this stupa, we find Telugu and Kannada languages.


Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra constructed a thousand pillared temple here. This temple was dedicated to Lord Siva, Vishnu and Sun. But there are no idols in the temple. This temple stands as an example for the architectured skill of Kakatiyas. During the early period of Kakatiyas, it was their capital.


This is a Lord Siva temple, located at the village Palampeta, which is 50 Kms away from the Warangal in Warangal district. The pieces of architecture of this place was described as the poems on the stone. This temple was constructed by Recharla Rudra.


It is located in Nizamabad district. Here there are two mosques built by Aurangazeb.


It is located in Nalagonda district. It is nearly 50 Kms away from Hyderabad. It is famous for the temple of Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy


It is 40 Kms away from Hyderabad. It is famous for Prana Lingam. The Lingam which was installed here is very big one. Even tallest persons cannot embrace the Lingam and joined their hands.


It is located in Khammam district. Here there is a very famous temple of Lord Sri Rama. This temple is situated on the banks of river Godavari. One devotee of Sri Rama by name Kancherla Gopanna wrote several kirtanas about this God. These kirtanas were scribed on rock plates.


It is famous for its architecture. The construction of this church was started in 1914 and it was completed in the year 1924.


It was constructed by Mahammud Quli Qutub Shah in memory of the suppression of the plague quickly and successfully.


It is one among the biggest mosques in South India. In a single sitting, 1000 members can offer their prayer here.


A single Lingam was divided into 5 and installed in 5 Aramas. These 5 Aramas are
  • Draksharammam: It is located at Draksharammam of East Godavari district.
  • Komararamam: It is located at Samarlakota of East Godavari district.
  • Somaramam: It is located at Gunupudi (Bhimavaram) of West Godavari district.
  • Kshira Ramam: It is located at Palakollu of West Godavari district.
  • Amara Ramam: It is located at Amaravathi of Guntur district. This is also called as Amareswaram Temple. This 32 Kms away from Guntur. Amaravathi is famous for the Buddhist architecture.


It is located in Guntur district. The famous Trikoteswara Swamy Temple is there on the top of the hill. A great fair will be organized on the day of SIVARATHIRI every year.


It is located in Guntur district. The presiding deity on this place is famous as Panakala Narasimha Swamy.


It is located near Narsaraopet of Guntur district. There is an ancient temple called Kapoteswara Swamy Temple.


It is located in Guntur district. This was a famous Buddhist Centre. This was the capital of Ikhavakus. The remains of Buddhist Stupas are found here. The famous archeological museum is there in the nighty of Krishna River.


It is situated on the bank of river Krishna. This place located on the Rishabha giri hill. The Lord Siva Temple of this place is very ancient. It was mentioned in Mahabharata as well as in Puranas.  People says that the God Siva and the goddess Parvathi came to the earth in the forms of Mallikarjuna and Bhramarambika. The Krishna river in Srisailam is called as patelaganga. Sri Krishna Deva Raya constructed many Pavillions here.


This is a small village, situated in Hindupur taluque of Anantapur district. There is a famous Siva temple which was constructed with Vijayanagar architecture in 16th Century. This place is famous for its Nandi statue.


It is located near Dharmavaram of Anantapur district. There is world famous prasanti. Nilayam of Sri Satya Sai Baba. The devotees of Sri Satya Sai Baba visit this place from all parts of the world.


This place is located in Kurnool district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Lakshmi Nara Simha Swami. Here, there are Nava Narasimha Kshetras. This is one among the two schools of Sri Vaishnava tradition.


It is located near Srisailam. Here, the water is flowing always from the mouth of nandi idol.


It is situated on the bank of the river Tungabhadra in Kurnool district. This is the place where Sri Raghavendra Swami attained Sajiva Samadhi.


It is located in Visakhapatnam district. It was mentioned in the puranas also. It is famous for the temple of Sri Venkateswara.


It is situated on the bank of Vamsadhara, 50 Kms away from Srikakulam. It is famous for the temples of Mukhalingeswara Swami, Bhimeswara Swami and Someswara Swami. The people says that the Goddess Durga came to the earth for the protection Bhuvaraha murthy to protect the KSHETRA MAHIMA. Here, there is a beautiful architecture.


This place is famous not only in the state but also in the entire India. There is famous temple of Sri Venkateswara. This temple situated at Tirumala at the height of 2800 feet from the sea level. The statue of Sri Krishna Deva Raya was installed here in his life time only. The Tower and Dhvajastambham of the temple are very big in size. According to the specifications of Ramanuja the Puja and Archanas are conducting even to this day.


It is located in West Godavari district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Venkateswara.


It is situated on the bank of the river of Swarnamukhi river in Chittoor district. According to the stalapuranam, among the Panchabhutalingas this is one of that and is called as Vayulingam.


It is famous for the temple of Satyanarayana Swami. The devotees who came here, will perform Satyanarayana Vratas.


It is located in Srikakulam district. It is famous with the Suryanarayana Swami temple. In addition to this there are only two Surya temples in India.


It is located in East Godavari district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swami.


It is in East Godavari district. The famous Jaganmohini Chennakesava Swami is located here. The idol of this temple appear in two forms. It will appear as Chennakesava Swami from the front side and as Jaganmohini from the back side.


This village situated in Guntur district, 5 Kms away from Vijayawada. There is a four storied Buddhist cave temple in this village. In the second there is a sanctum sanatorium with 16 Mandapas. In that sanctum sanatorium, the idol of Narasimha Swami was installed. In the third floor, there is a idol Ananta Padma Nabha Swami. The length of this idol is 17 feet.

The Role of Andhra Mahasabha in Hyderabad, Andhra Jana Sangham Regular conferences details


The Andhra Mahasabha, formed in 1930 pushed for the social and cultural development of the people of Telangana. Previously it is called as Andhra Jana Sangham. In the 1930 conference, the Andhra Jana Sangham had converted into Andhra Mahasabha.

1JogipetaSuravaram Pratap Reddy1930
2DevarakondaBurgula Ramakrishna Rao1931
3KhammamPulijala Venkata Ranga Rao1934
4Sircilla (or) SirsillaMadapati Hanumanta Rao1935
5ShadnagarKonda Venkata Ranga Reddy1936
6NizamabadMundumula Narsinga Rao1937
7MalkapurMundumula Ramachandra Rao1940
8ChilukurRavi Narayana Reddy1941
9DharmavaramMadiraju Ramakoteswar Rao1942
10HyderabadKonda Venkata Ranga Reddy1943
11BhuvanagiriRavi Narayana Reddy1944
12KhammamRavi Narayana Reddy1945
13KandiSardar Jamalapuram Kesava Rao1946

The Following are the short points of Andhra Mahasabha
  • The 1st Conference was held in 1930 at Jogipeta in Medak district under the Presidency of Suravaram Pratap Reddy. 
  • The 2nd Conference was held in 1931 at Devarakonda in Nalagonda district under the Presidency of Burgula Ramakrishna Rao. 
  • The 3rd Conference was held in 1934 at Khammam district under the Presidency of Pulijala Venkata Ranga Rao. 
  • The 4th Conference was held in 1935 at Sirsilla in Karimnagar district under the Presidency of Madapati Hanumanta Rao. 
  • The 5th Conference was held in 1936 at Shadnagar in Mahaboobnagar district under the Presidency of Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy. 
  • The 6th Conference was held in 1937 at Nizamabad district under the Presidency of Mundumula Narsinga Rao. 
  • The 7th Conference was held in 1940 at Malkapur in Nalgonda district under the Presidency of Mundumula Ramachandra Rao. 
  • The 8th Conference was held in 1941 at Chilukur in Nalgonda district under the Presidency of Ravi Narayana Reddy. 
  • The 9th Conference was held in 1942 at Dharmavaram in Warangal district under the Presidency of Madiraju Ramakoteswar Rao. 
  • The 10th Conference was held in 1943 at Hyderabad under the Presidency of Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy. 
  • The 11th Conference was held in 1944 at Bhuvanagiri under the Presidency of Ravi Narayana Reddy. 
  • The 12th Conference was held in 1945 at Khammam district under the Presidency of Ravi Narayana Reddy. 
  • The 13th Conference was held in 1946 at Kandi in Medak district under the Presidency of Sardar Jamalapuram Kesava Rao.

April 01, 2015

Soil resources in Andhra Pradesh, Characteristics, Region and Types of Soils


Soils are formed by the combination of weathered rock materials with humus. Soil is an important resource to an agricultural country like India. Soils form from the basis of human needs like food, clothing, etc. The prosperity of a country depends generally on the soils of that country.

There following are the soil types in Andhra Pradesh. They are Red Soils, Black Cotton Soils, Alluvial Soils and Laterite Soils.


Red soils spread over a larger area of the state. They are light and have water retaining capacity. They are very less fertile. Red soils are found in Telangana and Rayalaseema, a large area of Nellore and Visakhapatnam districts, and parts of East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Prakasam districts. Uplands crops like groundnut, horse gram etc., are grown in these soils. In the areas where irrigation facilities are available Cotton, Tobacco and various varieties of fruits are also grown in Red soils.


These soils can absorb and retain water for longer duration. Black cotton soils are found in the Godavari valley from Adilabad district to Khammam district, Mahaboobnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, Nalagonda, Ranga Reddy districts, Rayalaseema districts and parts of West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur districts. Cotton is the chief crop grown these soils. Crops like Jowar, Bajra, Korra, Tobaco, Tumeric, Chillies, Sugar-can, Paddy, Plantain etc., are also grown in the irrigated areas.


Alluvial soils are formed with sand and Alluvium brought by river. These soils are spread over the deltas of Krishna, Godavari and Penna. These are very fertile soils. Paddy, Sugar-cane, Plantain, Guava, Lemon and Oranges are grown in these soils.


These soils are found in Zaheerabad area of Medak districts and in parts of Nellore, Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts. These soils are less fertile. Mango, Cashew and Tamarind trees are mainly grown in laterite soils. Turmeric and Potatoes are also grown.

In addition to the above soils, Sandy soils are found along the coastal areas of the state. Casuarina and Cashew groves are extensively grown in these sandy soils.

A brief details about Soils in India

1 Red soil
a) Formed by Weathering of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
b) Mixture of clay and sand.
Large parts of T.N, Karnataka, North East Andhra, M.P & Orissa.
a) Red in color because of its high Iron-oxide (FeO) content.
b) Deficient in Nitrogen, Lime, Phosphoric acid and humus.
c) Rich in Potash.
Wheat, Rice, Millet, Pulses (needs fertilizer and irrigation).
2 Black Cotton Soil (or) Regur Soil
a) Is of volcanic origin
b) Lava soil due to disintegration of basalt, formed in the area where it has formed.
c) It is also classified as Cheen ozem
Occurs mainly in Deccan trap covering large areas in Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu.
a) Deep, fine grained
b) Varying in colour from black to chestnut brown.
c) Rich in Iron, Potash, Lime, Calcium, Alumina, Carbonates & Humus.
d) Moisture retentive, very sticky when wet.
e) Forms deep cracks when dry.
Cotton, Jowar, Wheat, Sugarcane, Linseed, Gram, Fruit & vegetable.
3 Red Soil
a) Formed by weathering of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
b) Mixture of clay and sand.
Large parts of T.N. Karnataka, North East Andhra, M.P & Orissa.
a) Red in colour because of its high Iron-Oxide (FeO) content.
b) Deficient in nitrogen, lime, phosphoric acid and humus.
c) Rich in Potash.
Wheat, Rice, Millets, Pulses, (needs fertilizer and irrigation)
4 Laterite Soil
Formed due to weathering of lateritic rocks in low temperatures and heavy rainfall with alternating dry & wet period.
Karnataka, Summits of the Western and Eastern Ghats Malwa Plateau, Goa & Kerala.
a) Red in colour because of its high Iron-Oxide (FeO) content.
b) Poor in Nitrogen & Lime, rich in Iron.
c) High content of acidity and inability of retain moisture.
Unsuitable for agriculture due to high content of acidity and inability to retain moisture. Cashew and tropical grow well on it.
5 Arid & Desert Soil
NW India. Covers entire area west of the Aravalis in Rajasthan & parts of Haryana, Punjab & Gujarat.
Rich in Phosphates but poor in Nitrogen.
Fertile if irrigated. e.g: Ganga Nagar area of Rajasthan (Wheat basket of Rajasthan).
6 Saline & Alkaline Soil
It is also called as Reh, Kallar or usar
Arid and Semi-Arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
a) Soils have effervescence of Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium.
b) Salinity is usually confined to the upper layers and the soil can be reclaimed by improving drainage.
c) Alkalinity is removed by application of Gypsum.
Infertile, requires Soil-reclamation.
7 Forest Soil
In forest and hilly areas.
Himalayan Range, Southern hills of Peninsula.
Rich in organic matter.
a) In some places it shows sign of Podzolisation.
b) Deficient in Potash, Phosphorus & Lime.
c) Needs continued use of fertilizers for good yields.
Plantation Crops like tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits.
8 Peaty and other Organic Soil
Peaty Soil - Found in Kottayam and Alleppey district of Kerala.
Marshy Soil - Coastal areas of Orissa, W.B, T.N, North Bihar & Almora (U.P).
a) High accumulation or Organic matter & small amount of soluble salts.
b) Deficient in Phosphorus & Potash.
Not conductive to cultivation.