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February 14, 2015

Indian history about Post Guptan Age [550 - 750] hand notes for Group-I, Group-II and Civil services

Post - Guptan Age [550 - 750]
  • Some important kingdoms in North-India
    • Pushyabhuti - Sthaneswar
    • Maukhari - Kannauj
    • Gouda (Bengal) - Karnasuvarna (Murshidabad)
    • Kamarupa (Assam) - Prag jyotishapura (Gowhati)
    • Maitreka - Vallabhi (Ancient Buddhist University "Vallabhi" founded by Maitrekas)
  • In Deccan, Badami chalukyan kingdom was most important
  • In South, "Pallavas of Kanchi"
  • Great Harshavardhan belongs to Pushyabhuti kingdom
  • Pushyabhuti's of North India
    • Samantas in Guptan period
    • Harshavardhan came into power and the kingdom got independence [606 - 647]
Political Career
  • He conquered Kannauj (Capital), Bengal, Assam, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajastan
  • When he conquered Gujarat, the king was Pulakesin-II of Badami Chalukayans
  • Harshavardhan was defeated by Pulakesin-II and made all agreement that "Narmada" as border
  • This information was known from "Aihole" inscription, which was on the walls of Jain temple.
  • In that inscription "Sakalottara Padeshwara" refers to Harshavardhan sakala whole, Uttara-Uttara (lord of North-India)
Literature
  • Harshavardhan wrote 3 dramas only
    • Priyadarshini
    • Nagananda
    • Ratnavali
  • "Bana Bhatta" who was a great scholar in his court. Some of important books he worte
    • Harsha Charita
    • Kadambari
    • Parvati Parinayam
Welfare of the poor people
  • After Ashoka, Harshavardhan was the king who take welfare measures.
  • Mahamoksha parishad
    • A programme conducted regularly for every 5 years without failure. So this was known as Quinquennial
    • This was taken for 75 days at prayaga
    • In this period, he distribute all wealth to the poor people.
Kannauj Assembly
  • Around 643 A.D, he held Kannauj Assenbly at Kannauj which was a religious conference
  • All religious peoples came and share their ideas
  • Huen Tsang, a Chinese pilgrim lived in India (630 - 644)
  • Huen Tsang was the president of Kannauj Assembly
  • In 647 A.d, Harsha was died. During the period (650 - 750 A.D) history of North India was not known.
  • The 3rd Chinese pilgrim "Itsing (675 - 685)" does not give any information about kings
  • Around 700 A.D, a king called "Yashovarma" ruled Kannauj
    • He may or mayn't belong to Harsha's dynasty
    • He himself as a great scholar
    • He wrote a book called "Ramabhyudayam", in this he described himself as a kinf of Kannauj
  • Important scholars of his court,
    • Bhavabhuti - Books:
      • Uttara Rama Charita
      • Maha Veera Charita
      • Malati Madhavam
    • Vakpati - Worte a book Goudavaka in prakrit
Badami Chalukyan Dynasty
  • They ruled Deccan between 543 - 755
  • Badami was a place in Karnataka (Bagalkot district)
  • Vatapi Chalukyan - Anicient name
Pulakesin-II
  • He was a great warrior, and conquered many kingdoms according to "Aihole inscription"
  • This inscription was authored by "Ravi kirti", described the victories of his master.
  • Kadamba - Banavasi
  • Ganga (Mysore)
  • Alupa kingdom
  • "Harshavardhan was defeated" - which was a greatest victory
  • Coastal districts of A.P.
  • New province has created, Vengi as capital and appointed "Kubja vishnu vardhana" as Governor
  • After Pulakesin-II, Kubja vishnu vardhan declared it as independent and riled by vengi chalukyans about 400 years
  • In this period only, Telugu literature was developed. Around 11th century the king, Raja Raja Narendra had two Telugu poets in his court.
    • Nannaya - Adikavi : He translated some parts of Maharastra into Telugu
    • Mallanna : Translated "Ganita sara sangraka" written by a Jain scholar into Telugu
  • 13th century, Tikkana - translated another some parts of Mahabharat
  • 14th century, Errana - translated remaining parts of Mahabharat
  • Kavitrayam - Nannaya, Tikkana & Errana
Pulakesin-II wars with Pallavas
  • Two important wars
    • The battle of "Pullaluru"
      • Mahendra varma-I was killed in this war.
    • At "Manimangula", around 642
    • Narsimha-I killed Pulkesin-II
      • Title: Vatapi konda (konda - conqueror/victor)
  • After Pulakesin-II, important kings of Badami chalukyan's dynasty
    • Vikramaditya-I
    • Vinayaditya
    • Vijayaditya
    • Vikramaditya-II
    • Keertivarma-II   -  He was assassinated by his governor "Dantidurga" around 755 A.D
  • He was the in-charge of Rastra, his dynasty was known as "Rastrakuta", capital of "Ellora"
Art & Architecture
  • Badami chalukyans build two types of temples
    • Rock cut cave temples
    • Structural type temples
      • Nagara / Sikhara
      • Dravidian style
      • Vesara style (combination of above two)
  • Rock cut cave temples found at Badami - 3 Hindu & 1 Jain temple
  • Structural temples
    • Aihole in Karnataka
      • Durga temple
      • Ladhuhan temple (siva temple)
      • Jain temple (on which Aihole inscription is found)
      • Pattadakal
  • The best temple in Ancient India was Kailasanatha temple at "Kanchi" buld by "Pallavas"
  • Virupaksha temple is quiet imitation of Kaila sanatha temple
    • Alampur, Mahaboobnagar district in A.P
      • Nava Bhrahmeswara temples on the bank of Tungabhadra
      • Sangameswara temple at "Kudalisangam" (The meeting point of Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers)
In South Pallavas of Kanchi (550 - 850)
  • Political history of Pallavas
    • Founder - "Simha Vishnu" follower of Vyshnavism
    • Mahendra varma-I
      • He wrote a Sanskrit drama - "Matta vilasa prahasanam"
      • He was killed in the war with Pulakesin-II
    • Narasimha varma-I
      • Title
        • Vatapi konda
        • Mahabali / Mahamallu
      • He build no. of  Ghatikas
        • Educational institutions related to:
          • Hindu temples - vedapata sala
          • Muslims - Madaras
    • Nandivarma-II : 2nd and last follower of vyshnavism
    • Nandivarma-III : A Tamil scholar, "Perundevanar" contemporary to this king
Art & Architecture
  • Initially, they passionate only Rock - cut cave temples
  • Mahendravarma-I
    •  Siva cave temple at Sittanavasal
      • This temple had painting of Murals
    • Ananta shayana cave temple at Undavalli
      • Best cave temple
  • Narasimha varma-I
    • Mahabalipuram - many cave temples are build
      • Important caves - "Pandavas caves" (8 caves)
      • Huge monolithic chariots
      • Each chariot carved from single rock
      • A great huge sculpture is also found
      • In left side - A muni with penance
      • In right side - Kailasam, Siva with Parvathi and water flows from Siva to Muni
      • This sculpture was known as "Arjunas penance" or "Descent of Ganga"
  • Sculptural temple build by Narasimha varma-II
    • He developed a new plan for hindu temples - Dravidian style
    • His temples were found at:
      • Mahabalipuram
      • Kanchi
  • Mahabalipuram is known as "Birth place of Dravidian Achitecture"
    • The best temple was "shore temple" (both Siva & Vishnu temples are found)
Literature
  • Pallavas gave importance to Sanskrit
  • Two great Sanskrit scholars
    • Bharavi - wrote a book "Kiratarjuneeyam"
    • Dandi - Author of "Dasha Kumara Charita". This book was translated into many languages.
    • In 13th century, "Ketana", disciple of Tikkana translated this book into Telugu. So, he was called as "Abhinava Dandi"
  • Tamil literature
    • Some religious literature was composed into Tamil
      • Prabandham
        • Nalayira Divya Prabandham
        • This was composed by 12 Vyshnava saints and also poet saints popularly known as "Alvars"
        • Alvars were treated as semi gods now.
        • Among 12, one woman was "Andal"
      • Tevaram / Tirumurai / Dravida veda
        • This was Tamil Syvam literature composed by "63 Nayanars"
        • Nayanars were also worshiped in temples
Note: Marine Archeology studied that, many temples were found are submerged. This was found after Tsunami in 2004.

Kanchi: Best temple in Ancient period - "Kailasanatha temple" or "Raja Simheswara temple".
Temples of Narasimha-II in Kanchi
  • Vykunta perumal
  • Mukhteswara temple
  • Matangeswara temple
Parasurameswara temple at Gudimallam, Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh. At Gudimallam, the 1st Sivalingam was excavated, which belongs to 2nd century A.D and it was Ekamukha linga.

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