February 14, 2015

Indian history about Post Guptan Age [550 - 750] hand notes for Group-I, Group-II and Civil services

Post - Guptan Age [550 - 750]
  • Some important kingdoms in North-India
    • Pushyabhuti - Sthaneswar
    • Maukhari - Kannauj
    • Gouda (Bengal) - Karnasuvarna (Murshidabad)
    • Kamarupa (Assam) - Prag jyotishapura (Gowhati)
    • Maitreka - Vallabhi (Ancient Buddhist University "Vallabhi" founded by Maitrekas)
  • In Deccan, Badami chalukyan kingdom was most important
  • In South, "Pallavas of Kanchi"
  • Great Harshavardhan belongs to Pushyabhuti kingdom
  • Pushyabhuti's of North India
    • Samantas in Guptan period
    • Harshavardhan came into power and the kingdom got independence [606 - 647]
Political Career
  • He conquered Kannauj (Capital), Bengal, Assam, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajastan
  • When he conquered Gujarat, the king was Pulakesin-II of Badami Chalukayans
  • Harshavardhan was defeated by Pulakesin-II and made all agreement that "Narmada" as border
  • This information was known from "Aihole" inscription, which was on the walls of Jain temple.
  • In that inscription "Sakalottara Padeshwara" refers to Harshavardhan sakala whole, Uttara-Uttara (lord of North-India)
  • Harshavardhan wrote 3 dramas only
    • Priyadarshini
    • Nagananda
    • Ratnavali
  • "Bana Bhatta" who was a great scholar in his court. Some of important books he worte
    • Harsha Charita
    • Kadambari
    • Parvati Parinayam
Welfare of the poor people
  • After Ashoka, Harshavardhan was the king who take welfare measures.
  • Mahamoksha parishad
    • A programme conducted regularly for every 5 years without failure. So this was known as Quinquennial
    • This was taken for 75 days at prayaga
    • In this period, he distribute all wealth to the poor people.
Kannauj Assembly
  • Around 643 A.D, he held Kannauj Assenbly at Kannauj which was a religious conference
  • All religious peoples came and share their ideas
  • Huen Tsang, a Chinese pilgrim lived in India (630 - 644)
  • Huen Tsang was the president of Kannauj Assembly
  • In 647 A.d, Harsha was died. During the period (650 - 750 A.D) history of North India was not known.
  • The 3rd Chinese pilgrim "Itsing (675 - 685)" does not give any information about kings
  • Around 700 A.D, a king called "Yashovarma" ruled Kannauj
    • He may or mayn't belong to Harsha's dynasty
    • He himself as a great scholar
    • He wrote a book called "Ramabhyudayam", in this he described himself as a kinf of Kannauj
  • Important scholars of his court,
    • Bhavabhuti - Books:
      • Uttara Rama Charita
      • Maha Veera Charita
      • Malati Madhavam
    • Vakpati - Worte a book Goudavaka in prakrit
Badami Chalukyan Dynasty
  • They ruled Deccan between 543 - 755
  • Badami was a place in Karnataka (Bagalkot district)
  • Vatapi Chalukyan - Anicient name
  • He was a great warrior, and conquered many kingdoms according to "Aihole inscription"
  • This inscription was authored by "Ravi kirti", described the victories of his master.
  • Kadamba - Banavasi
  • Ganga (Mysore)
  • Alupa kingdom
  • "Harshavardhan was defeated" - which was a greatest victory
  • Coastal districts of A.P.
  • New province has created, Vengi as capital and appointed "Kubja vishnu vardhana" as Governor
  • After Pulakesin-II, Kubja vishnu vardhan declared it as independent and riled by vengi chalukyans about 400 years
  • In this period only, Telugu literature was developed. Around 11th century the king, Raja Raja Narendra had two Telugu poets in his court.
    • Nannaya - Adikavi : He translated some parts of Maharastra into Telugu
    • Mallanna : Translated "Ganita sara sangraka" written by a Jain scholar into Telugu
  • 13th century, Tikkana - translated another some parts of Mahabharat
  • 14th century, Errana - translated remaining parts of Mahabharat
  • Kavitrayam - Nannaya, Tikkana & Errana
Pulakesin-II wars with Pallavas
  • Two important wars
    • The battle of "Pullaluru"
      • Mahendra varma-I was killed in this war.
    • At "Manimangula", around 642
    • Narsimha-I killed Pulkesin-II
      • Title: Vatapi konda (konda - conqueror/victor)
  • After Pulakesin-II, important kings of Badami chalukyan's dynasty
    • Vikramaditya-I
    • Vinayaditya
    • Vijayaditya
    • Vikramaditya-II
    • Keertivarma-II   -  He was assassinated by his governor "Dantidurga" around 755 A.D
  • He was the in-charge of Rastra, his dynasty was known as "Rastrakuta", capital of "Ellora"
Art & Architecture
  • Badami chalukyans build two types of temples
    • Rock cut cave temples
    • Structural type temples
      • Nagara / Sikhara
      • Dravidian style
      • Vesara style (combination of above two)
  • Rock cut cave temples found at Badami - 3 Hindu & 1 Jain temple
  • Structural temples
    • Aihole in Karnataka
      • Durga temple
      • Ladhuhan temple (siva temple)
      • Jain temple (on which Aihole inscription is found)
      • Pattadakal
  • The best temple in Ancient India was Kailasanatha temple at "Kanchi" buld by "Pallavas"
  • Virupaksha temple is quiet imitation of Kaila sanatha temple
    • Alampur, Mahaboobnagar district in A.P
      • Nava Bhrahmeswara temples on the bank of Tungabhadra
      • Sangameswara temple at "Kudalisangam" (The meeting point of Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers)
In South Pallavas of Kanchi (550 - 850)
  • Political history of Pallavas
    • Founder - "Simha Vishnu" follower of Vyshnavism
    • Mahendra varma-I
      • He wrote a Sanskrit drama - "Matta vilasa prahasanam"
      • He was killed in the war with Pulakesin-II
    • Narasimha varma-I
      • Title
        • Vatapi konda
        • Mahabali / Mahamallu
      • He build no. of  Ghatikas
        • Educational institutions related to:
          • Hindu temples - vedapata sala
          • Muslims - Madaras
    • Nandivarma-II : 2nd and last follower of vyshnavism
    • Nandivarma-III : A Tamil scholar, "Perundevanar" contemporary to this king
Art & Architecture
  • Initially, they passionate only Rock - cut cave temples
  • Mahendravarma-I
    •  Siva cave temple at Sittanavasal
      • This temple had painting of Murals
    • Ananta shayana cave temple at Undavalli
      • Best cave temple
  • Narasimha varma-I
    • Mahabalipuram - many cave temples are build
      • Important caves - "Pandavas caves" (8 caves)
      • Huge monolithic chariots
      • Each chariot carved from single rock
      • A great huge sculpture is also found
      • In left side - A muni with penance
      • In right side - Kailasam, Siva with Parvathi and water flows from Siva to Muni
      • This sculpture was known as "Arjunas penance" or "Descent of Ganga"
  • Sculptural temple build by Narasimha varma-II
    • He developed a new plan for hindu temples - Dravidian style
    • His temples were found at:
      • Mahabalipuram
      • Kanchi
  • Mahabalipuram is known as "Birth place of Dravidian Achitecture"
    • The best temple was "shore temple" (both Siva & Vishnu temples are found)
  • Pallavas gave importance to Sanskrit
  • Two great Sanskrit scholars
    • Bharavi - wrote a book "Kiratarjuneeyam"
    • Dandi - Author of "Dasha Kumara Charita". This book was translated into many languages.
    • In 13th century, "Ketana", disciple of Tikkana translated this book into Telugu. So, he was called as "Abhinava Dandi"
  • Tamil literature
    • Some religious literature was composed into Tamil
      • Prabandham
        • Nalayira Divya Prabandham
        • This was composed by 12 Vyshnava saints and also poet saints popularly known as "Alvars"
        • Alvars were treated as semi gods now.
        • Among 12, one woman was "Andal"
      • Tevaram / Tirumurai / Dravida veda
        • This was Tamil Syvam literature composed by "63 Nayanars"
        • Nayanars were also worshiped in temples
Note: Marine Archeology studied that, many temples were found are submerged. This was found after Tsunami in 2004.

Kanchi: Best temple in Ancient period - "Kailasanatha temple" or "Raja Simheswara temple".
Temples of Narasimha-II in Kanchi
  • Vykunta perumal
  • Mukhteswara temple
  • Matangeswara temple
Parasurameswara temple at Gudimallam, Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh. At Gudimallam, the 1st Sivalingam was excavated, which belongs to 2nd century A.D and it was Ekamukha linga.

No comments:

Post a Comment