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February 03, 2015

Indian history about Guptan Age 300 - 550 A.D hand notes for Group-I, Group-II, Group-IV, Jr.Lecturers & Degree Lecturers and Civil services prelims

GUPTA AGE [300 - 550 A.D]
Two capitals
  • Pataliputra
  • Ujjain
Sources
  • Literary
  • Epigraphy [inscriptions]
  • Numismatics [coins]
Literary Sources

S.No
Scholar
Book
Content
1
Kamandaka
Nitasara
Administration
2
Vajjika
Kaumudi Mahotsava
Coronation of Chandra Gupta-I
3
Vishakadatta
Devi Chandra Guptam [Drama]
Story of Chandra Gupta-II & Queen: Dhruva Devi
4
Basa
Swapna Vasavadatta [Drama]
The dream of Vasavadatta
5
Shudraka
Mrichachakatika
Story of Brahman Charadatta who loves Vasantasena
6
Somadeva [kashmiry scholar 11th century A.D]
Kathasarit Sagara
Spread of Indian culture towards South-East Asia
  • Angkorat in kambolia, Vishnu temple [Biggest temple in world] built by Surya Varma in 12th century.
  • Kesaria Stupa is one foot taller than the Borobodur Stupa in Java (Indonesia).
Fahien [39-414]
  • Chinese Buddhist pilgrim came to India in Chandra Gupta-II period
  • Book: Fu-kuo-ki
    • Content: Common man life and untouchability
  • Puranas: After Guptans, no dynasty was discussed in Puranas.
Epigraphical sources
  • 42 Inscriptions
Inscriptions of Samudra Gupta
  • Allahabad - Prashasti
    • List of kingdoms he conquered
  • Gaya copper plate inscription - Land charter
    • A village was donated to Buddhist Vihara at Gaya.
    • Vihara was built by Mahamega varma [Srilanka king]
 Inscriptions of Chandra Gupta-II
  • Mehrauli iron pillar inscription - Prashasti
Inscriptions of Skunda Gupta
  • Bhitari - Prashasti
    • Information about invasions of Huns
    • Repeated invasions of Huns leads to ends of Guptan period.
    • Two leaders of Huns
      • Toramana - Jainism
      • Mihirakula - Shaivism
Inscription of Bhanu Gupta
  • Eran [Madhya Pradesh] - 510 A.D
  • Prashasti
    • The first epigrophical evidence of Sati
Numismatic sources
  • Coins of Guptans
    • Dinars
    • Gold coins
  • Coins of Chandra Gupta-I
    • Patriots of King and Queen [Kumara devi]
  • Coins of Samudra Gupta
    • Playing with veena
      • Title: Kavi Raja
    • Performing rituals
      • Title: Aswa Medha Parakrama
  • Coins of Chandra Gupta-II
    • Hunting lion
    • Title: Simha Chandra
    • 1st King of Guptans who issued Silver coins - Rupaya
  • Coins of Kumara Gupta
    • Performing Aswa Medha Yaga
    • Title: Aswa Medha Mahendra
Political History
  • 1st King - Sri Gupta
  • 2nd King - Ghatotkacha
  • Title: Maha Raja
  • This title indicates the political status of these two kings. i.e., Not Independent. They were samantas to Kushans
  • Chandra Gupta-I [1st Independent king of his dynasty]
    • Title: Maha Rajadi Raja
  • Samudra Gupta
    • Allahabad inscription was issued by Harisena, who was sandivigrahaka [Minister of external affairs] of Samudra Gupta.
    • According to this inscription, the king conquered 100 kingdoms
      • 8 Aryavarta kingdoms
        • Land between Himalayas & Vindhya
      • 5 Pratyanta kingdoms
        • Border states
      • 9 Gana Rajyas [Republican states]
      • 18 Atavika Rajyas [Jabalpur region]
      • 12 Dakshina pada [South States]
    • V.A. Smith, a British historian describes Samudra gupta as "Indian Napoleon"
  • Chandra Gupta-II
    • He captured Ujjain and took two title
      • Sakari [destroyer of shakas]
      • Vikramaditya
    • Ujjain become cultural capital of Guptans
    • 9 great scholars in his court "Navaratnas"
Kalidasa Writings
  • Kalidasa probably lived in 5th century of the Christian Era.
  • Three dramas -Natakatraya
    • Abhigyana Shakuntalam
    • Malavikagna Mitram
    • Vikrama Urvasi
  • Kavyas
    • Megadhutam
    • Raghu Vamsham
    • Kumara Sambavam
    • Rutu Samhara
Vishnu Sharma
  • Panchatantra
Amara Simha
  • Dictionary: Amarakosha
Vara Ruchi
  • Book: Prakruta Prakasa
Susruta [Doctor]
  • Book on Surgery: Susruta Samhita
Dhanvantri [Doctor]
  • Medical dictionary: Nighantu
Arya Bhatta [5th Century A.D]
  • Surya Siddanta [On Astronomy]
  • Arya Bhattiam [On Maths]
  • " 0 " (Zero) was invented by unknown Indian and it was used by Arya Bhatta in his book.
Varaha Mihira
  • Brihat Samhita - Sarvagna [deals with every science]. i.e., Encyclopedia
  • Pancha siddantika [Astronomy]
Brahma Gupta [7th Century]
  • Khandana Khanda Khavya
  • He was known as Indian Newton
  • Decimal system (Hindsa) was invented by Arabs
  • Wilmut cloning master
Kumara Gupta
  • First king who faced problems due to Huns.
  • Nalanda University belongs to Mahayana Buddhism.
  • According to Huen Tsang, the strength of this university is 8500 students, 1500 teachers from different places of world.
  • 200 villages under this university for maintenance purpose.
  • Archaeologists said the capacity of this university is 2000. They excavated entire university.
  • Skanda Gupta
  • Vishnu Gupta [Last king]
Hinduism
  • Not a religion, it is a way of life.
  •  Vedic rituals without animal sacrifice + Bhakti
  • Rudra + Shiva
  • Vishnu + Krishna + Buddha
  • Conflicts between worshipers - Two important sects
    • Shaivism
    • Vishnavism
Growth of Art & Architecture
  • Buddhist - Brahmanical
  • Architecture : 2 types
    • Cave temples
    • Structural temples
  • Cave temples
    • Large no. of Buddhist caves
    • Ajantha [Maharastra]
      • 31 Buddhist caves today
      • Some of them were built by Guptans
    • Bagh [MP]
      • 9 Buddhist cave temples
    • Hindu caves
      • First Hindu caves in India built by Guptans in Udayagiri [MP]
  • Structural temples
    • Ikshvaku Dynasty, built first Hindu structural temples in Nagarjuna Konda [3rd Century]
    • In 4th Century, Guptans built these temples in North India.
  • Temples List
    • Kankalidevi Temple [Jabalpur]
    • Vishnu & Varaha Temple [Eran]
    • Shiva Temple [Bhumara]
    • Parvati Maha Deva Temple [Nachnakutara]
    • Dashavatar Temple [Deogarh]
    • Ruined Temple [Bhitargaon]
  • Shikara / Nagara - style invented by Guptans [4th Century - 21st Century] in North India.
  • Dravida - style invented by Pallavas in South [7th Century - 21st Century]
  • In Deccan, Vesara style invented by Badami chalukyans 7th Century [composite style of Architecture]
Sculptures
  • A Copper Buddha - Sultanganj
    • Now, this is in Queen's palace [Buckingham Palace]
  • Stone sculpture of varaha at Udayagiri
Paintings
  • Ajanta & Bagh [Not surviving]
  • Ajanta
    • 31 Caves
      • Chaityas
      • Viharas
    • Mural/Fresco painting on walls
    • Stories of Buddha, Bodhisattvas painted on walls of caves called Jatakas

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