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February 03, 2015

Indian history about Foreign Trade hand notes

INFORMATION ABOUT FOREIGN TRADE
Natural History [72 A.D]: By Pliny, Roman
  • Roman Empire imported luxury products from India and paid 50 Crore gold coins annually.
  • In archaeological excavations thousands of gold coins were found in South-India [Kerala]
Periplus of the Erythearn sea [Greek Book]
    • Greeks called Red sea as Erythearn sea.
    • The author was sailor of Alexandria [Captain of ship]
    • 24 port cities were mentioned.
    • Important port cities
      • Baryagaza [Broch in Gujarat]
      • Tyndis [Calicat]
      • Muziris [Cochin]
      • Poduka [Pondichery]
      • Masolia [Machilipatnam]
      • Gang [Tamralipti - Ancient most post of Bengal]
    • Ancient Roman Trade
      • Arabian sea
      • Red sea
      • Mediterranean sea
      • Meeting city - Alexandria
Factors that influenced the trade
    • Discovery of Monsoons, 46 A.D.
      • Hippalus - Italian Sailor, who discovered the monsoons directions.
      • This discovery was very useful to Trade favorable monsoons - Quick and safe trade.
    • Silk route to India
      • Entire world learned seri culture  from China [13th century]
      • Even today, 70 - 80%  silk from China
      • Chinese trade with Romans was over land.
      • This land trade came to an end in 1st century, because of troubles created by Central Asia.
      • China - Tibet - Sikkim - North eastern states - Deccan Nathula]
      • Indian rulers started collecting taxes
      • Because of silk route, Sathavahanas and Northern East became more prosperous.
      • Recently, Nithula route was reopened.
Religious Development
    • Revival of Brahmanism
    • Buddhism
    • New Religious were borned.
    • Bhagavata - 5 Gods
      • Family - Vrishni
      • Tribe - Yadu
      • i.e., Pancharatra worship
    • Vasudeva Krishna
    • Samkarshana [Baladeva/Balarama]
    • Samba [Son of Krishna - Jambavati]
    • Praddyumna [Son of Krishna - Rukmini]
    • Aniruddha [Son of Praddyumna]
    • Bhakti based religion and anti-ritualistic
Heliodorus
    • Author of Besanagar pillar inscription
    • Content
      • Calling himself as 
        • Parama Bhagavata
        • Vasudeva krishna
        • Deva Deva
    • In Sangam literature, Krishna as Mayon.
Growth of Art & Architecture
    • In North-West, new style of art was developed.
      • i.e., Gandhara, head quarters - Taxila.
    • This art was initially developed by Indo-Greeks after - Kushans
    • In Indo-Gangetic basin [Mathura] 
      • This art was developed by Kushans
    • In the lower valleys of Krishna and Godavari
      • Head quarters - Amaravati
Gandhara school of Art
    • It was composite in nature
    • combination of Indian & Greek traditions, So, Indo-Greek Art.
    • Purely Buddhist
      • The art has images of Buddhism
    • Much more importance to physical accuracy
    • Bahamian - The rock art Buddhas were found.
      • Tallest Buddha in world [175 fts]
      •  Around 2000, All Buddha idols were destroyed by Talibans.
Mathura Art
    • Purely indigenous
    • Not confined to one religion
      • Ekamukha linga, Chaturmukha linga
      • Trimurtis and their wives
    • Secular images were also found
      • Ex: Kanishka
    • Spiritual looks were given along with physical accuracy
Amaravati Art
    • 150 B.C - 350 A.D - under shatavahanas rule
    • Pre-Mahayana Amaravati - Symbols
    • Mahayana Amaravati - human form to Buddha
    • Best representatives of Amaravati Art
      • Ayakapata
      • Apsarasa
    • Ayakapata
      • White marble stable with images of events of Buddha
      • Amaravati art was presented at "Nagarjuna konda"
    • Apsarasa
      • Created with human expressions
      • i.e., Great achievement because it is very difficult to create/show expressions.

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