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November 06, 2014

Indian history about Mauryan Age 300 B.C - 200 B.C hand notes for Group-I, Group-II, Group-IV, Jr.Lecturers & Degree Lecturers and Civil services prelims

MAURYAN'S AGE [300 B.C - 200 B.C]

Mauryan's were ruled entire Indian subcontinent except Tamil nadu and Kerala.

North : Himalayas
South : Kaveri region
East : Bangladesh
West : Afghanistan

Ashoka's inscriptions says, the southern India was ruled by some kingdoms: Cholas, Pandayas, keralaputta (Chera).

Sources:
  • Literary Sources
  • Epigraphical Sources
Literary:

Megastanese - Indica:
  • Greek ambassdor, in the court of Chandra Gupta Maurya sended by Selucus Nicator.
Controversies in Indica:
  • There is no slavery in India.
  • There are 7 castes in India.
  • There are no famines in India.
  • There is no usury system.
Shatapata Brahmana - First evidence to money lending in India.

Arthashastra: Kautilya / Chanukya / Vishnu Gupta


Nudrakshasa:
  • Author - Vishakadatta (scholar of Guptan age)
  • Dethroning of Nandas - tells about how the Mauryans got power.
Harsha charita - Bana (7th century)
  • Primary Sources - Indica, all archeological sources.
  • Secondary Sources - Written by scholars who were not belongs to that period.
    • Ex:-Harsha charita - about decline of Mauryan power.
  • Last emperor - Brihadruda, who was assassinated by his Senapati Pushyomitra shunga. 
  • Raja Tarangini - Kalhana (12th century)
  • Exclusively deals with Kashmir (1st -12th century)
  • Sri Nagar city was built by Ashoka.
Foreign Texts:
  • Divyavadana - Tibetian language
  • Mahavamsha - Pali language, Srilankan buddist.
  • Deepavamsha - Pali language, Srilankan buddist.
  • Natural history by Pliny, Latin language. About military strengths of Mauryans.
Chaturanga bala
  • 6 lakhs Infantry - foot soldiers
  • 30,000 Cavalry - Ashrikadalam
  • 9,000 Elephantry - Gajadala
  • 8,000 Chariotry - Radhadala
Epigraphical Sources:
  • Ashokan Inscriptions
    • Based on content, inscriptions were two types.
      • Eulogy / Prasasti - for public reading
      • Land charters / Dana Shasana - not for public.
    • Ashokan inscriptions were neither Eulogy nor Land charters.
    • Ashokan inscriptions are alled Edicts
    • Edicts : Royal order instructions to people.
      • 181 edicts in 47 places.
    • Prakrit : Official language of Mauryans
      • Kharosti Scripts - 2 places (in Pakistan)
      • Brahmi Scripts - 44 places
        • Most popular script in ancient period.
    • In Kurnool district, these inscriptions were found.
    • One inscription at Khandahar (Afganistan), which is unique written in two languages with their own scripts.
      • Greek & Aramaic
    • Total Languages = 3 [Prakrit, Greek, Aramic]
    • Total Scripts = 4 [Kharosti, Brahmi, Greek & Aramaic]
  • In 1837, "James Princet" Successfully deciphered the Brahmi script.
    • Ex:-Devanampiya Piyadarshi Laja Magadha, etc., [Ashokan Inscription] Ashoka was not used his name in his inscriptions.
  • In 1915
    • Karnataka - Misky, udegolam, Nittur.
    • Madhya Pradesh - Gujjara
    • Inscriptions found at these 4 areas were only contain the name of Ashoka.
  •  Types of Edicts:
    • Rock Edicts
    • Pillar Edicts
    • Barabora Cave Edicts
    • Ashoka - First King who built Rock cut caves.
  • Rock Edicts: 2 types based on length
    • Major - XIV at 8 places
    • Minor
    • Major Places:
      • Yerraguddi [Kurnool, A.P]
      • Sopara [Maharastra]
      • Girner [Gujarat]
      • Kalsi [Dehradun]
      • Jaughada [Orissa]
      • Dhauli [Orissa]
      • Manshera [Pak]
      • Shahbajgir [Pak]
      • Content is Dhamma, Admn, Kalinga war, welfare measures.
    • Minor Places:
      • Bhabru [West Bengal]
      • Ashoka expressed his faith in Buddhism.
      • Three Sharanyas in Buddhism
        • Buddam Saranam Gachhamee
        • Dharmam Saranam Gachhamee
        • Sangam Saranam Gachhamee
  • Pillar Edict:
    • Inscriptions of Pillar Edict
      • Delhi - Meerut
      • Delhi - Topra
      • These 2 inscriptions were shifted by P Firoz Shah king
      • Rummendai [Lumbini]
        • Information about tax system of Mauryans
        • Ex:- Astabhigiya (1/8th)
      • Prayaga - kosam
        • These pillar consists inscriptions of Ashoka, Samudra Gupta and jahangir.
  • Barabora Cave Edict: Four caves built by Ashoka & donated to Ajivikas.
  • Nagarjuni Cave Inscriptions:
    • Nagarjuni Cave Inscriptions by Dasharadha [Grandson of Ashoka]. Three caves donated to Ajivikas.
Chandra Gupta Maurya [Founder] {321 B.C - 297 B.C}:
  • Chandra Gupta gave all his territory upto Kabul river to Seleucus Nicator after a war.
  • C.G. Maurya married Seleucus daughter
  • He performed Sallekana at sravana belgala
Bindusara (297 B.C - 272 B.C): Follower of Ajivika religion
  • 2 Greek Ambassadors in his court
    • Deimacus [Syria]
    • Dionysius [Egypt]
  • In Greek records,
    • Chandra Gupta was named as Sandrabotus
    • Bindusara - Amitrachates
Ashoka [268 B.C-232 B.C]:
  • Bratrisidal war of succession. He killed all his brothers (99) as per the Mahavamsa (Srilanka) book. 
  • 13th major rock edict gives information about kalinga war 8 years the war was fought. 
  • After this war he decided not to do any war again. i.e., No bherighosha but only dhamma.
  • Dhamma - Moral law
    • Defines code of conduct for each individual in family and society
      • Non - violence
      • Respect towards others
  • Symbol: Circle with 24 spokes [Ashoka Chakra]
  • According to the puranas, Ashoka divided his kingdom into 2 parts
    • Eastern part - Dasharatha [Grandson]
    • Western part - Kunala [Son]
  • Samprati - United the Kingdom
  • Last ruler - Brihadrada
Mauryan Administration: 
  • Two important features
    • Administration is highly centralized
    • Administration is highly Bureaucratized
  • Some important officers
    • Samaharta - Head of tax system
    • Sannidhata - Chief Treasury officer
    • Mahamattara - Officers of high rank in any department.
  • Apart of them, 34 Adhyakshas headed by one person
    • Akara - Head of mines department
    • Kupya - Forest department
    • Pautava -Weights & Measures
    • Pattana
    • Sitadhyaksha - Agriculture Department
    • Lakshana
    • Virata - Grassland, pasturs
    • Tanya - Trade Department
Provincial & Local administration
  • 4 provinces
    • Uttarapade - Takshasila [capital]
    • Avantipada - Ujjain
    • Dakshinapada (Sadaran) - Suvarnagiri
    • Prachyapada - Tochhali (Thauli)
  • Head of these provinces - Aryaputra
  • Provinces are divided into Aharas (districts)
    • Rajuka - Incharge of Revenue administration
    • Pradeshika - Police administration
  • Gramas administration by Gramani
  • According to the Megastanese - Indica, Every city had urban administration. i.e., Municipal Council consisted of 30 members.
  • These members divided into 6 boards
    • Board of Taxes
    • Board of Industries
    • Board of Foreigners
    • Board of Census
Judiciary administration of Mauryans:
  • Civil courts - Dharmstya
  • Criminal courts - Kantakashodana
  • According to Megastanese - Indica, at that time there was less crime rate and thefts were not known to them because of harsh penal code punishments.
  • Trail by ordeal system [Biggest defect of Judiciary system]. Ex:- Agnidivya - test by fire. this was abolished by Britishers.
Military administration:
  • According to kautilya, 4 wings - chaturangabala.
  • According to Megastanese, 6 wings - Chaturangabala + Navy & Transport
  • Espionage - Intelligence department.
    • Kautilya - Guda
    • Megastanese - overseers
Art & Architecture:
History of Art & Architecture started in India
  • Pillars
    • All Pillars were made by Red Sand Stone (Available in Mathura).
  • Stupas
  • Caves
  • Sculptures
Pillars: It is a huge monolithic column
  • Height : ~ 50 fts
  • Weight :~ 50 Tons
  • Glassy polish finish given to these pillars. 
  • Every pillar was crowned by an element (animals) i.e., capital. 
  • Columns is same for each pillar but capital is different.
  • Bull Capital - Rampurva (Bihar)
  • Single lion capital in seated posture - Lauriya Nandangarh (Bihar)
  • Elephant capital - Sankissa (U.P)
  • Horse capital - Rummendai
  • Saranath capital in Kashi - Best and important capital
    • 4 roaring lions (standing posture) faced to 4 directions
    • Dharma Chakra (Ashoka chakra) below the lions
    • 4 animal symbols around the chakra
    • Horse, Bull, Elephant, Lion
    • At bottom inverted Lotus
  • After Independence, the Govt. of India taken this symbol as emblem with two modifications
Indo-Greeks: (Indo-Bactrians):
Demitrius, the Bactrian king who conquered North Indian and returned to home land after appointing a power governor, Menander.
Menander (IInd century B.C):
  • After some period, he was declared independence capital Sakala.
  • In Indian literature, Menander known as Milinda.
  • Second Greek hero who conquered India - Demitrius
    • Menander - follower of Buddhism
    • Nagasena Bikshu - A monk in his court
Milinda Panho - which contains the dialogues or philosophical discussions in the form of questions and answers between monk and king.
  • In Pali, Panho means questions
  • This is secrete book for Buddhists
Gold coins: Indo-Greeks were first people who introduced Gold coins in India.
Double die struck coins:
  • The coins contains some information on both sides.
  • Titles on coin : Deva vrata and Sudeva vrata
  • Kings information on one side, Religious  information (symbols) on another side.
The value of coins depends on the value of metal in market.
Parthians: Northern provinces of Iron - Prathia
  • Gondopharins (19 - 45 A.D)
  • According to the Syrian text, Saint Thomas, In 13th century Marcopolo says "At Madras he saw the holy tomb of saint Thomas" in his book.
  • He started praising the queen who was ruling Motupalli in Prakasam District at that time. i.e., Rudrama Devi (Kakatiya Dynasty).
Scythians/Shakas:
  • Around 220 B.C, "Shih-Hung-Ti", who built the Great Wall of China to protect the China from the attacks of Shakas and Yuchies. So Shakas came to India.
    • 5 Independent kingdoms of Shakas in India
      • Kapisa kingdom [Afganistan]
      • Taxila kingdom
      • Mathura kingdom
      • Ujjain [Gujarat & Malwa region] - Most powerful and Biggest kingdom
      • Barukachcha
  • Rudradaman, the king of Ujjain in 2nd century A.D. His inscription found at Junaghad
  • Content : Sudarshana, historical lake, which was built by Mauryans and he repaired that lake.
Yuchies/Kushans:
  • Kingdom - Indo-Gangtic region to central Asia [Oxus river]
  • Two capitals
    • Purushapura [Peshvat]
    • Mathura
  • Founder
    • Kujulakadaphysis
    • 2nd king - Wima
    • 3rd king - Kanishka
  • Dinars: The gold coins of Kushans
    • Wima
      • Title:Mahesware
      • Other side of coin has images of Saivas
    • Kanishka
      • Title : Sak yo Buddo
      • Human Form of Buddha
  • Literature:
    • Couple of Buddhist scholars in Kanishka's court
      • Vasumitra wrote a book : Maha Vibhasha Sastra
      • Ashvaghosha: First dramas wrote by him in India.
      • Earliest dramas
        • Sundaranandana
        • Sauriputra Prakarana
      • Kavyas
        • Buddha Charita
        • Vajrasuchi
  • Shunga Dynasty (Brahmans):
    • 10 Kings
    • Capital: Vidisha
    • Pushyamitra Shunga: In all literatures he mentioned as Senapathi.
      • At least 10 couple of times he defeated Yavanas
      • Performed two Ashwamedayagas at Ayodhya 
    • The revival of Brahmanism was because of Shungas & Sathavahanas
    • Patanjili: Priest of Pushyamitra Shunga.
    • Book: Mahabhashya this was a great commentary on a book called Astadhyayi (Source to all books on Grammar, 1st book of Sanskrit Grammar) written by Panini (5th Century B.C)
    •  Panini proud Graduate of Taxila University.
  • Taxila University [500 B.C - 500 A.D]
    • 1st University in India
    • Graduates from this University
      • Jivaka (6th century) - Doctor
      • Panini (5th century) - Grammarian
      • Kautilya (4th century) - Public Administration
      • Choraka (1st century) - Doctor
    • According to the Divyavadana (book), Pushyamitra Shunga destroyed about 84,000 stupas which were built by Ashoka.
    • But according to the Archaeological studies said that Pushyamitra was religious tolerant and he built many Buddhist stupas, even today these stupas were surviving.
    • Ex;- Stupas at Gaya
  • Agnimitra Shunga (Son of Pushyamitra)
    • He was a hero of a drama written by Kalidasa, Mala Vikagnamitram
  • Bhaga Bhadra [6th King]
    • His coins were found in Karim Nagar
    • Greek Ambassador in his court, "heliodorus"
    • An inscription of heliodorus was found at Besanagar village near Vidisha
  • Devabhuti [Last King]
    • Senapati - Vasudeva Kanva assassinated him.
  • Kanva Dynasty:
    • Kanva Dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty in Magadha and ruled in the Eastern part of India.
    • Susharma [Last King]
      • According to the Vishnupurana, he was assassinated by an Andhra king. Sathavahanas were mentioned in puranas as "Andhras". So the king may be a Sathavahana King.
Satavahanas [225 B.C - 225 A.D]: 30 kings
    • Capitals: Pratistanapura [On the bank of upper Godavari]
    • Dranyakata [ Amaravathi in Guntur]
  • Srimuka
    • Coins: Polin & Lead
    • These coins were found at Kotilingala in Karimnagar District
  • ShataKarni-I
    • Nanaghat inscription [Near Nasik] which was issued by his wife Naganika describes the victories of the king.
    • Dakshinaparjapati
    • He performed 1-RajasuyaYagas, 2-Aswamedha Yagas and other rituals.
    • He gave cows, elephants and villages to priests.
    • Land grants were given by this king first time.
  • Kuntala Shatakarni [11th King]
    • Two scholars in this court
    • Gunadya - Book:Bruhat katha [Paisachi form of prakrit language]
    • Each language has many dialects
      • Magadhi - Ashoka Inscriptions
      • Arda Magadhi - Jain literature
      • Sauraseni - Spoken in Madhura region
      • Maharastri - Sathavahanas inscriptions
      • Sharva Varma - Author & "Katantra Vyakarana"
  • Hala (19th King)
    • Title : Kavi Raja
    • Book : Gadasapta sati
  • Goutamiputra Shatakarni (23rd King)
    • Metronymics - Taking name of the mother before his name. Ex:-Goutami.
    • This time, the society was highly polygynous.
    • Law cannot change the society.
    • Nasik inscription by his mother, Gouthami Balasri, describes her son's victories.
    • Titles: 
      • Eka Brahmna
      • Raja Raja
      • Dvija kula Vadhana
      • Tri Samudra toyapita vahana (King who has a horse, which drink the 3 seas water)
  • Yagnasri Satakarni (29th King)
    • Coins : Made by potin, with ship image which indicates the foreign trade.
    • According to a tradition,"Acharya Nagarjuna" lived in his court.
  • Acharya Nagarjuna:
    • 2nd tatangatha
    • Indian - Einstein
    • He wrote 24 Books
      • Madhyamika Karika
      • Shunya Saptathi
      • Suhrullekha (Good letters)
      • Prajna Paramitra
  • Pulomavi III( Last King)
    • 3 Kingdoms
      • Abhira - Nasik (Maharastra)
      • Ikshvaku - Vijayapuri (Nagarjuna Konda)
        • 1st Hindu temples were built India by Ikshvaku.
      • Chutunaga Dynasty - Banavasi (Mysore Karnataka)
  • Maha Mega Varma Dynasty:
    • "Hatigumpa", the place where an inscription was founded.
    • Kharaveli-King
      • Capital : Kalinga Nagiri
      • The inscription gives information about his victories
        • Defeated Satavahanas
        • Conquered Magadha
        • Defeated Tamiradesha Sanghatom
      • He promoted Jainism in orissa.
S.No
Name
Region
Capital
Emblem
Greatest King
1
Cholas
Northern Tamilnadu
Kaveripatnam
Tiger
Karikala Chola
2
Pandya
Southern Tamilnadu
Madurai
Carp (2 fishes)
Negunjeliyan
3
Chera
Kerala
Vanji
Bow & Arrow
Senguttuvan

Tamil Literature:
  • Ancient most spoken language in India - Tamil
  • Aryan Group - North Indian Languages
  • Dravidian Group - South Indian Languages
    • Tamil - B.C
    • Kannada - 9th Century A.D
    • Telugu - 11th Century A.D
    • Malayalam - 14th Century A.D
  • Tamil was recognized as the classical language by the Govt. of India in 2004-05.
  • Rules for classical Language
    • Language must be 150 years old.
    • Independent literature
  • Sangam literature - Earliest literature in this period.
  • Sangam -Meetings of a Tamil poets, according to one tradition at Madurai city. 
  • 1st Sangam: [Mythological]
    • Agastya Mahamuni: First Aryan came to south and introduced Aryan culture resulted in caste system, rituals, Brahmin society e.t.c.,
  • 2nd Sangam:
    • Tamil text on grammar
    • Tolkkapiyam - Earliest text of Tamil literature - written by Tolkkapiyar.
  • 3rd Sangam:
    • Very important and massive literature was introduced.
    • It has mainly three groups
      • 18 Major works
      • 18 Minor works
      • 3 Epics
    • 18 Major works
      • Tiru marugaruppadai - A Book on Tamil God called "Murugan" which was written by Nakkirar, President of 3rd Sangam.
    • 18 Minor works
      • Tiru kural [The Bible of Tamil literature] which was written by Tiruvalluvar.
    • 3 Epics
      • Sillppadikaram by illango Adigal [Story of Kannaki].
    • Mani Megalai by Sattalai Sattanar
      • Story of a dancer, Mani Megalai.
      • She become a buddist nun
    • Sivaga Sindamani by Tiruttokadevar
      • Story of hero called Jivaka
Economy
  • Most prosporous age & Indian History.
    • Reason - Trade.
  • Trade with Roman empire
    • Roman empire - Main partner
    • More no. of Roman coins were found.
    • China
    • Egypt & Ethiopia
    • South - East Asia including Barma & Srilanka.
Spices
  • Pepper [Yavanapriya]
    • Chera Kingdom
    • This was most important item in experts
Textiles
  • High quality cotton - Muslin
  • Leading exporters - Satavahanas & Cholas
Pearls
  • Leading exporters - Pandyans
  • Very demanded item in Europe

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