MAURYAN'S AGE [300 B.C - 200 B.C]
Mauryan's were ruled entire Indian subcontinent except Tamil nadu and Kerala.
North : Himalayas
South : Kaveri region
East : Bangladesh
West : Afghanistan
Ashoka's inscriptions says, the southern India was ruled by some kingdoms: Cholas, Pandayas, keralaputta (Chera).
- Literary Sources
- Epigraphical Sources
Megastanese - Indica:
- Greek ambassdor, in the court of Chandra Gupta Maurya sended by Selucus Nicator.
- There is no slavery in India.
- There are 7 castes in India.
- There are no famines in India.
- There is no usury system.
Arthashastra: Kautilya / Chanukya / Vishnu Gupta
- Author - Vishakadatta (scholar of Guptan age)
- Dethroning of Nandas - tells about how the Mauryans got power.
- Primary Sources - Indica, all archeological sources.
- Secondary Sources - Written by scholars who were not belongs to that period.
- Ex:-Harsha charita - about decline of Mauryan power.
- Last emperor - Brihadruda, who was assassinated by his Senapati Pushyomitra shunga.
- Raja Tarangini - Kalhana (12th century)
- Exclusively deals with Kashmir (1st -12th century)
- Sri Nagar city was built by Ashoka.
- Divyavadana - Tibetian language
- Mahavamsha - Pali language, Srilankan buddist.
- Deepavamsha - Pali language, Srilankan buddist.
- Natural history by Pliny, Latin language. About military strengths of Mauryans.
- 6 lakhs Infantry - foot soldiers
- 30,000 Cavalry - Ashrikadalam
- 9,000 Elephantry - Gajadala
- 8,000 Chariotry - Radhadala
- Ashokan Inscriptions
- Based on content, inscriptions were two types.
- Eulogy / Prasasti - for public reading
- Land charters / Dana Shasana - not for public.
- Ashokan inscriptions were neither Eulogy nor Land charters.
- Ashokan inscriptions are alled Edicts
- Edicts : Royal order instructions to people.
- 181 edicts in 47 places.
- Prakrit : Official language of Mauryans
- Kharosti Scripts - 2 places (in Pakistan)
- Brahmi Scripts - 44 places
- Most popular script in ancient period.
- In Kurnool district, these inscriptions were found.
- One inscription at Khandahar (Afganistan), which is unique written in two languages with their own scripts.
- Greek & Aramaic
- Total Languages = 3 [Prakrit, Greek, Aramic]
- Total Scripts = 4 [Kharosti, Brahmi, Greek & Aramaic]
- In 1837, "James Princet" Successfully deciphered the Brahmi script.
- Ex:-Devanampiya Piyadarshi Laja Magadha, etc., [Ashokan Inscription] Ashoka was not used his name in his inscriptions.
- In 1915
- Karnataka - Misky, udegolam, Nittur.
- Madhya Pradesh - Gujjara
- Inscriptions found at these 4 areas were only contain the name of Ashoka.
- Types of Edicts:
- Rock Edicts
- Pillar Edicts
- Barabora Cave Edicts
- Ashoka - First King who built Rock cut caves.
- Rock Edicts: 2 types based on length
- Major - XIV at 8 places
- Major Places:
- Yerraguddi [Kurnool, A.P]
- Sopara [Maharastra]
- Girner [Gujarat]
- Kalsi [Dehradun]
- Jaughada [Orissa]
- Dhauli [Orissa]
- Manshera [Pak]
- Shahbajgir [Pak]
- Content is Dhamma, Admn, Kalinga war, welfare measures.
- Minor Places:
- Bhabru [West Bengal]
- Ashoka expressed his faith in Buddhism.
- Three Sharanyas in Buddhism
- Buddam Saranam Gachhamee
- Dharmam Saranam Gachhamee
- Sangam Saranam Gachhamee
- Pillar Edict:
- Inscriptions of Pillar Edict
- Delhi - Meerut
- Delhi - Topra
- These 2 inscriptions were shifted by P Firoz Shah king
- Rummendai [Lumbini]
- Information about tax system of Mauryans
- Ex:- Astabhigiya (1/8th)
- Prayaga - kosam
- These pillar consists inscriptions of Ashoka, Samudra Gupta and jahangir.
- Barabora Cave Edict: Four caves built by Ashoka & donated to Ajivikas.
- Nagarjuni Cave Inscriptions:
- Nagarjuni Cave Inscriptions by Dasharadha [Grandson of Ashoka]. Three caves donated to Ajivikas.
- Chandra Gupta gave all his territory upto Kabul river to Seleucus Nicator after a war.
- C.G. Maurya married Seleucus daughter
- He performed Sallekana at sravana belgala
- 2 Greek Ambassadors in his court
- Deimacus [Syria]
- Dionysius [Egypt]
- In Greek records,
- Chandra Gupta was named as Sandrabotus
- Bindusara - Amitrachates
- Bratrisidal war of succession. He killed all his brothers (99) as per the Mahavamsa (Srilanka) book.
- 13th major rock edict gives information about kalinga war 8 years the war was fought.
- After this war he decided not to do any war again. i.e., No bherighosha but only dhamma.
- Dhamma - Moral law
- Defines code of conduct for each individual in family and society
- Non - violence
- Respect towards others
- Symbol: Circle with 24 spokes [Ashoka Chakra]
- According to the puranas, Ashoka divided his kingdom into 2 parts
- Eastern part - Dasharatha [Grandson]
- Western part - Kunala [Son]
- Samprati - United the Kingdom
- Last ruler - Brihadrada
- Two important features
- Administration is highly centralized
- Administration is highly Bureaucratized
- Some important officers
- Samaharta - Head of tax system
- Sannidhata - Chief Treasury officer
- Mahamattara - Officers of high rank in any department.
- Apart of them, 34 Adhyakshas headed by one person
- Akara - Head of mines department
- Kupya - Forest department
- Pautava -Weights & Measures
- Sitadhyaksha - Agriculture Department
- Virata - Grassland, pasturs
- Tanya - Trade Department
- 4 provinces
- Uttarapade - Takshasila [capital]
- Avantipada - Ujjain
- Dakshinapada (Sadaran) - Suvarnagiri
- Prachyapada - Tochhali (Thauli)
- Head of these provinces - Aryaputra
- Provinces are divided into Aharas (districts)
- Rajuka - Incharge of Revenue administration
- Pradeshika - Police administration
- Gramas administration by Gramani
- According to the Megastanese - Indica, Every city had urban administration. i.e., Municipal Council consisted of 30 members.
- These members divided into 6 boards
- Board of Taxes
- Board of Industries
- Board of Foreigners
- Board of Census
Judiciary administration of Mauryans:
- Civil courts - Dharmstya
- Criminal courts - Kantakashodana
- According to Megastanese - Indica, at that time there was less crime rate and thefts were not known to them because of harsh penal code punishments.
- Trail by ordeal system [Biggest defect of Judiciary system]. Ex:- Agnidivya - test by fire. this was abolished by Britishers.
- According to kautilya, 4 wings - chaturangabala.
- According to Megastanese, 6 wings - Chaturangabala + Navy & Transport
- Espionage - Intelligence department.
- Kautilya - Guda
- Megastanese - overseers
Art & Architecture:
History of Art & Architecture started in India
History of Art & Architecture started in India
- All Pillars were made by Red Sand Stone (Available in Mathura).
- Height : ~ 50 fts
- Weight :~ 50 Tons
- Glassy polish finish given to these pillars.
- Every pillar was crowned by an element (animals) i.e., capital.
- Columns is same for each pillar but capital is different.
- Bull Capital - Rampurva (Bihar)
- Single lion capital in seated posture - Lauriya Nandangarh (Bihar)
- Elephant capital - Sankissa (U.P)
- Horse capital - Rummendai
- Saranath capital in Kashi - Best and important capital
- 4 roaring lions (standing posture) faced to 4 directions
- Dharma Chakra (Ashoka chakra) below the lions
- 4 animal symbols around the chakra
- Horse, Bull, Elephant, Lion
- At bottom inverted Lotus
- After Independence, the Govt. of India taken this symbol as emblem with two modifications
Demitrius, the Bactrian king who conquered North Indian and returned to home land after appointing a power governor, Menander.
Menander (IInd century B.C):
- After some period, he was declared independence capital Sakala.
- In Indian literature, Menander known as Milinda.
- Second Greek hero who conquered India - Demitrius
- Menander - follower of Buddhism
- Nagasena Bikshu - A monk in his court
- In Pali, Panho means questions
- This is secrete book for Buddhists
Double die struck coins:
- The coins contains some information on both sides.
- Titles on coin : Deva vrata and Sudeva vrata
- Kings information on one side, Religious information (symbols) on another side.
Parthians: Northern provinces of Iron - Prathia
- Gondopharins (19 - 45 A.D)
- According to the Syrian text, Saint Thomas, In 13th century Marcopolo says "At Madras he saw the holy tomb of saint Thomas" in his book.
- He started praising the queen who was ruling Motupalli in Prakasam District at that time. i.e., Rudrama Devi (Kakatiya Dynasty).
- Around 220 B.C, "Shih-Hung-Ti", who built the Great Wall of China to protect the China from the attacks of Shakas and Yuchies. So Shakas came to India.
- 5 Independent kingdoms of Shakas in India
- Kapisa kingdom [Afganistan]
- Taxila kingdom
- Mathura kingdom
- Ujjain [Gujarat & Malwa region] - Most powerful and Biggest kingdom
- Rudradaman, the king of Ujjain in 2nd century A.D. His inscription found at Junaghad
- Content : Sudarshana, historical lake, which was built by Mauryans and he repaired that lake.
- Kingdom - Indo-Gangtic region to central Asia [Oxus river]
- Two capitals
- Purushapura [Peshvat]
- 2nd king - Wima
- 3rd king - Kanishka
- Dinars: The gold coins of Kushans
- Other side of coin has images of Saivas
- Title : Sak yo Buddo
- Human Form of Buddha
- Couple of Buddhist scholars in Kanishka's court
- Vasumitra wrote a book : Maha Vibhasha Sastra
- Ashvaghosha: First dramas wrote by him in India.
- Earliest dramas
- Sauriputra Prakarana
- Buddha Charita
- Shunga Dynasty (Brahmans):
- 10 Kings
- Capital: Vidisha
- Pushyamitra Shunga: In all literatures he mentioned as Senapathi.
- At least 10 couple of times he defeated Yavanas
- Performed two Ashwamedayagas at Ayodhya
- The revival of Brahmanism was because of Shungas & Sathavahanas
- Patanjili: Priest of Pushyamitra Shunga.
- Book: Mahabhashya this was a great commentary on a book called Astadhyayi (Source to all books on Grammar, 1st book of Sanskrit Grammar) written by Panini (5th Century B.C)
- Panini proud Graduate of Taxila University.
- Taxila University [500 B.C - 500 A.D]
- 1st University in India
- Graduates from this University
- Jivaka (6th century) - Doctor
- Panini (5th century) - Grammarian
- Kautilya (4th century) - Public Administration
- Choraka (1st century) - Doctor
- According to the Divyavadana (book), Pushyamitra Shunga destroyed about 84,000 stupas which were built by Ashoka.
- But according to the Archaeological studies said that Pushyamitra was religious tolerant and he built many Buddhist stupas, even today these stupas were surviving.
- Ex;- Stupas at Gaya
- Agnimitra Shunga (Son of Pushyamitra)
- He was a hero of a drama written by Kalidasa, Mala Vikagnamitram
- Bhaga Bhadra [6th King]
- His coins were found in Karim Nagar
- Greek Ambassador in his court, "heliodorus"
- An inscription of heliodorus was found at Besanagar village near Vidisha
- Devabhuti [Last King]
- Senapati - Vasudeva Kanva assassinated him.
- Kanva Dynasty:
- Kanva Dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty in Magadha and ruled in the Eastern part of India.
- Susharma [Last King]
- According to the Vishnupurana, he was assassinated by an Andhra king. Sathavahanas were mentioned in puranas as "Andhras". So the king may be a Sathavahana King.
- Capitals: Pratistanapura [On the bank of upper Godavari]
- Dranyakata [ Amaravathi in Guntur]
- Coins: Polin & Lead
- These coins were found at Kotilingala in Karimnagar District
- Nanaghat inscription [Near Nasik] which was issued by his wife Naganika describes the victories of the king.
- He performed 1-RajasuyaYagas, 2-Aswamedha Yagas and other rituals.
- He gave cows, elephants and villages to priests.
- Land grants were given by this king first time.
- Kuntala Shatakarni [11th King]
- Two scholars in this court
- Gunadya - Book:Bruhat katha [Paisachi form of prakrit language]
- Each language has many dialects
- Magadhi - Ashoka Inscriptions
- Arda Magadhi - Jain literature
- Sauraseni - Spoken in Madhura region
- Maharastri - Sathavahanas inscriptions
- Sharva Varma - Author & "Katantra Vyakarana"
- Hala (19th King)
- Title : Kavi Raja
- Book : Gadasapta sati
- Goutamiputra Shatakarni (23rd King)
- Metronymics - Taking name of the mother before his name. Ex:-Goutami.
- This time, the society was highly polygynous.
- Law cannot change the society.
- Nasik inscription by his mother, Gouthami Balasri, describes her son's victories.
- Eka Brahmna
- Raja Raja
- Dvija kula Vadhana
- Tri Samudra toyapita vahana (King who has a horse, which drink the 3 seas water)
- Yagnasri Satakarni (29th King)
- Coins : Made by potin, with ship image which indicates the foreign trade.
- According to a tradition,"Acharya Nagarjuna" lived in his court.
- Acharya Nagarjuna:
- 2nd tatangatha
- Indian - Einstein
- He wrote 24 Books
- Madhyamika Karika
- Shunya Saptathi
- Suhrullekha (Good letters)
- Prajna Paramitra
- Pulomavi III( Last King)
- 3 Kingdoms
- Abhira - Nasik (Maharastra)
- Ikshvaku - Vijayapuri (Nagarjuna Konda)
- 1st Hindu temples were built India by Ikshvaku.
- Chutunaga Dynasty - Banavasi (Mysore Karnataka)
- Maha Mega Varma Dynasty:
- "Hatigumpa", the place where an inscription was founded.
- Capital : Kalinga Nagiri
- The inscription gives information about his victories
- Defeated Satavahanas
- Conquered Magadha
- Defeated Tamiradesha Sanghatom
- He promoted Jainism in orissa.
Carp (2 fishes)
Bow & Arrow
- Ancient most spoken language in India - Tamil
- Aryan Group - North Indian Languages
- Dravidian Group - South Indian Languages
- Tamil - B.C
- Kannada - 9th Century A.D
- Telugu - 11th Century A.D
- Malayalam - 14th Century A.D
- Tamil was recognized as the classical language by the Govt. of India in 2004-05.
- Rules for classical Language
- Language must be 150 years old.
- Independent literature
- Sangam literature - Earliest literature in this period.
- Sangam -Meetings of a Tamil poets, according to one tradition at Madurai city.
- 1st Sangam: [Mythological]
- Agastya Mahamuni: First Aryan came to south and introduced Aryan culture resulted in caste system, rituals, Brahmin society e.t.c.,
- 2nd Sangam:
- Tamil text on grammar
- Tolkkapiyam - Earliest text of Tamil literature - written by Tolkkapiyar.
- 3rd Sangam:
- Very important and massive literature was introduced.
- It has mainly three groups
- 18 Major works
- 18 Minor works
- 3 Epics
- 18 Major works
- Tiru marugaruppadai - A Book on Tamil God called "Murugan" which was written by Nakkirar, President of 3rd Sangam.
- 18 Minor works
- Tiru kural [The Bible of Tamil literature] which was written by Tiruvalluvar.
- 3 Epics
- Sillppadikaram by illango Adigal [Story of Kannaki].
- Mani Megalai by Sattalai Sattanar
- Story of a dancer, Mani Megalai.
- She become a buddist nun
- Sivaga Sindamani by Tiruttokadevar
- Story of hero called Jivaka
- Most prosporous age & Indian History.
- Reason - Trade.
- Trade with Roman empire
- Roman empire - Main partner
- More no. of Roman coins were found.
- Egypt & Ethiopia
- South - East Asia including Barma & Srilanka.
- Pepper [Yavanapriya]
- Chera Kingdom
- This was most important item in experts
- High quality cotton - Muslin
- Leading exporters - Satavahanas & Cholas
- Leading exporters - Pandyans
- Very demanded item in Europe