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October 18, 2014

Indian history about Pre Mauryan Age hand notes for Group-I, Group-II, Group-IV, Jr.Lecturers and Degree Lecturers and Civil services prelims

PRE - MAURYAN AGE (600 -300 B.C)

Different Names:
Age of Shodasa Mahajanapadas.
Age of Buddha (Yugapurusha)

Mahajanapadas:
Anguttara Nikaya - Buddhist literature in pali language.

Important languages of Ancient India:
Sanskrit - Intellectual language
Pali & Prakrit - Convenient to common man
Buddhists - Pali language
Jain - Prakrit language

North-west India - 2 Janapadas
South India - 1 Janapada
North India - 13 Janapadas

S.No
Name
Capital
1 Magadha Raja Gruha - shifted to Pataliputra
2 Anga Champa
3 Malla Pava (Bihar), Kashi (U.P)
4 Vijji/Lichavi Vaishali (Bihar)
5 Kasi Varanasi
6 Kuru Hastinapur, Indraprasta
7 Saurasena Mathura
8 Panchala Ahichchatra
9 Kosala Shravasti
10 Matsya Virata Nagara (Jaipur)
11 Avanti (Central India) Ujjain (M.P)
12 Chedi (Central India)
(Bundelkhand)
Suktimati
13 Gandhara (North-west India) Takshasila (Taxila) (Rawalpandi), Pushkalavati (Pak-afghan border)
14 Kamboja (North-west India) Rajapura
15 Asmaka (South India) Podana (Bodar in Nizamabad)


History of Magadha: 3 Dynasties
  • Haryanka dynasty
  • Sisunaga dynasty
  • Nanda dynasty
I) Haryanka dynasty:
  • Bimbisara (1st king and founder). His policies were,
    • Annexation (war) Ex:- Anga
    • Matrimonies (marriage alliances) Ex:- Kosaladevi (princess of Kosala)
    • Diplomacy Ex:- The doctor of Bimbisara, Jivaka went to Avanti to save the king (Friendship)
  • Ajatasatru: 
    • He was a patricide (who kills his father).
    • His policy - war. Ex:- Kasi, Vaisali, Malla, Kosala, etc.,
  • Udayana:
    • He was assassinated by Sisunaga, Senapati.
    • He built a fort at the confluence of Ganga.
II) Sisunaga dynasty:
  • Sisunaga - Avanti was captured by him.
  • Kalasoka - Shifted capital from Rajagir to Pataliputra. He was assassinated by Senapati, Mahapadmananda.
III) Nanda dynasty:
  • Caste - Shudra
  • Religion - Jain
  • Mahapadmananda - Greatest among all Magadha rulers. First North Indian king conquered the South-India (upto Godavari region). Except two North-west Janapadas all were conqured by Nanda.
  • Danananda (last ruler) - In 321 B.C, he was defeated by Chandra Gupta Maurya.
  • Why Magadha rulers not touched the North-west Janapadas
    • At that time the two Janapadas were conquered by Iranians (persians), They are greatest rulers in world.
  • First foreigner who conquered India -  Cyrus.
  • Cyrus grandson "Darius" completed conquering the total North-west India.
  • According to Heredotus,
    • Among 28 provinces, India was one which gives 1/3 rd  of income to Persians .
    • Domination of Persians come to end (Sindu - Hindu) because of Alexander.
  • Darius-II was defeated by Alexander.
  • King of Taxila, "Ambhi" invited Alexander.
  • Alexander was couple of years in India (327-326 B.C).
  • Important battle is "Hydaspas".
  •  In 323 B.C, at Babilonia (Iron) Alexandar was died.
  • King of Syria, Selucus Nickator (greek Emporer). He ruled India After Alexander.
Economic developments:
  • Introduction of metal coins (6th century B.C).
    • Earliest coins - "Punch marked coins".
      • These coins were unscripted made up of silver & copper.
  • Emergence & Guild (SRENI - Sanskrit) system
    • Means - Association of merchants & Traders.
    • Kolika Sreni -Weapons manufacturing
    • Kulala Sreni - Pots manufacturing
    • Gandika Sreni - perfumes
Religious developments: 62 Hetrodox movements were born, against the Brahmanism.
  • Buddhism: 
    • Buddha lived in 5th - 6th century. 
    • Tribe: Sakya 
    • Born in Kapila vastu (Nepal) 
    • Father : Suddodana 
    • Mother : Mahamaya 
    • Wife : Yasodara 
    • Son : Rahul
Pancha Mahakalyana: 5 great events in the life of Budha
  • Birth: Lumbini
    • Symbol : Lotus
    • Original name : Siddharda
  • Mahabhinishkramana (Age:29)
    • symbol : Horse (Kantaka)
  • Sambodhi
    • In Gaya (Bihar), under Bodic tree (49 days) Age: 35.He became Buddha (Tatagatha - who knows truth).
    • Symbol : Bodic tree
  • Serman
    • 1st Lecture of Budha - Dharma chakra parivartana at saranath (near to kasi) attended by 5 people.
  • Mahaparinirvana
    • Death of Budha (80 Years) in kushi (Kusinagara)
    • Symbol : Sthupa
Buddist Monuments:
  • Stupa : Buddist structure built on the ashes of Buddha or Buddist monks semi domical structure.
  • Vihara / Arama : Residences of Buddist monks.
  • Chaitya : Prayer hall
Doctrines of Buddism: Sayings of Buddha, secular things. He was rational & scientific philosopher.
  • 4 Noble Truths
    • World is full of misery.
    • Cause of this misery is greed.
    • Conquering greed one can attain Nirvana.
    • There is a way to prevent misery - marga.
  • Astanga Marga (8 fold path)
    • Right Actions
    • Right Efforts
    • Right Speech
    • Right Livelihood
    • Right Vision
    • Right Awareness
    • Right Aim
    • Right Meditation
  •  Middle path : The extremes of every thing should be avoided.
  • Pratyutta samuppada (cause & effect relationship)
Heenayana
Mahayana
Anti changes. i.e., Reflects the any change incorporated in religion Pro-change
Language - Pali Language - Sanskrit
Nerver worship idols symbols worship (Stupa, tree, etc.,) Idol worshipers

  • Bodhisattvas - previous births of Buddha
    • Avalokitheswara (Padmapani)
    • Manjusri (Born in Amaravathi)
    • Vajrapani
    • Padma Sambhava
    • Amitabha
    • Maitreya - Future Buddha
S.NO
YEAR
VENUE
PRESIDENT
KING
PURPOSE
OUTCOME
1 483 B.C Raja Graha Maha Kaiyapa Ajata Satruvu Documentation of Buddha's preachings
  • Ananda compiled sutta pitaka, contains the preachings of Buddha.
  • Upali wrote Vinaya pitaka, which deals with code of conduct and monks.
2 383 B.C Vaishali Sabakami Kalashoka Bridge of the gulf between 2 groups.
  • Buddhism was divided into sects.
    • Mahasangikas
    • Staviravadins / Theravadins
3 250 B.C Pataliputra Moggaliputta Tissa Ashoka Various issues
  • Abhidhamma pitaka, it talks about philosophical speculations.
  •  Buddhist missionaries were formed.
4 1st Century A.D Kundalavana (Kashmir) Vasumitra (Asvagosha) Kanishka To unite 18 sects & Buddhism
  • 18 sects into two groups.
    • Heenayanism (Heenayana)
    • Mahayanism (Mahayana)

Vajrayana Buddhism:
  • Moksha margas
    • Magic
    • Sexual interpoles
  • Sanghas started by Buddha
    • Men as monks
    • Women as nouns
  • Amaravathi is birth place of Vajrayana
  • Degeneration  of Sanghas
  • Give up of pali
  • Idol worship
  • Reform of Brahmanism
Jainism: 24 Tirthankaras -Ford makers
  • 1st - Rishaba Natha / Adinatha
    • Symbol - Bull
  • 22nd - Neminatha / Aristra Neminatha
    • Symbol - Shell
  • 23rd - Parsvanatha (Parents - Ashrasenudu & Vamaladevi)
    • Symbol - Snake
    • Lived in 8th century B.C, Born in Royal family of Kashi. New religion was founded by him (Nigrantha).
    • Nigrantgha - Free from the bonds of world.
    • 4 Doctrines
      • Asatya - Nonlying
      • Ahimsa - Non injury
      • Asateya - Non steeling
      • Aparigraha - Non accumulation of wealth
  • 24th - Vardamana Mahaveera
    • Symbol : Lion
    • Born in 540 B.C, at Kundagrama (Near to Vaishali, in Bihar)
    • Kshatriya family - Jnatrika
    • Father - Siddhardh
    • Mother - Trishala devi
    • Wife - Yashoda
    • Daughter - Priyadarshi
    • Son-in-law - Jamali
    • At the age of 42, he reached the last stage i.e., trithankara.
  • Title:
    • Kavali - Kaivalyagyana (ultimate state of knowledge)
    • Jina - Conqueror (Become the master over the senses)
  • Sallekhana - Extreme fast to death. Give maximum pain to your senses without taking water and food.
  • He died in pava (72)
  • Historical founder of Jainism - Parshanatha
Doctrines of Jainism:
  • Panchasutras
    • 4 given by Parshanatha
    • 5th by Mahaveera. ie., Brahmacharya
  • Tri-ratnas
    • Samyak Kriya (Good actions)
    • Samyak Gyana (Right knowledge)
    • Samyak visvas (Faith)
  • Approximately around 300 B.C
    • Jains had been divided into 2 sects
      • Swetambaras (white cloths) - Stulabhadra
      • Digambaras (Discarded cloths) - Bhadra Bahu
    • Swetambaras followers of 23rd trithankars
    • Digambaras followers of 23rd trithankars
  • Gomateswara son of 1st tirthankara.
  • He was strong man and conquered many Rajyas so people called him as Bahubali. He was not a tirthankara.
Mahamasttabhisheka: For every 12 years in Sravana Belgala the people celebrating an ustavam.

Dwadasha Angas: Scriptures of Jainism. 12 Angas compiled in 6th century A.D at a conference held at "Vallabhi".

Ajivika:
  • By Makari Gosalaputta (Friend of Mahaveera).
  • Very popular religion in Mauryan's age.
  • Disappeared after 200 B.C.
  • Central Theme : "Niyati (predetermination)" doctrine.
Charvaka:
  • Founder : Ajita kesha kambali
  • Very radical philosophy
  • Totally believed in Materialism (No life after death) and Ethism.
Note:-
  • Around 300 B.C - 12 Years famine in Maghada, 12000 monks left maghada, leader was Bhadra bahu and they bitted at Sravana Belgala and became digambaras. Chandra Gupta maurya died at Sravana Belgala.
  • Huge statues of jain monk in Sravana Belgala called as Gomateswara/Bahubali. 
  • This status was built by Minister of Mysore state, Chamundaraya (10th century A.D).

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