PRE - MAURYAN AGE (600 -300 B.C)
Age of Shodasa Mahajanapadas.
Age of Buddha (Yugapurusha)
Anguttara Nikaya - Buddhist literature in pali language.
Important languages of Ancient India:
Sanskrit - Intellectual language
Pali & Prakrit - Convenient to common man
Buddhists - Pali language
Jain - Prakrit language
North-west India - 2 Janapadas
South India - 1 Janapada
North India - 13 Janapadas
|1||Magadha||Raja Gruha - shifted to Pataliputra|
|3||Malla||Pava (Bihar), Kashi (U.P)|
|10||Matsya||Virata Nagara (Jaipur)|
|11||Avanti (Central India)||Ujjain (M.P)|
|12||Chedi (Central India)
|13||Gandhara (North-west India)||Takshasila (Taxila) (Rawalpandi), Pushkalavati (Pak-afghan border)|
|14||Kamboja (North-west India)||Rajapura|
|15||Asmaka (South India)||Podana (Bodar in Nizamabad)|
History of Magadha: 3 Dynasties
- Haryanka dynasty
- Sisunaga dynasty
- Nanda dynasty
I) Haryanka dynasty:
- Bimbisara (1st king and founder). His policies were,
- Annexation (war) Ex:- Anga
- Matrimonies (marriage alliances) Ex:- Kosaladevi (princess of Kosala)
- Diplomacy Ex:- The doctor of Bimbisara, Jivaka went to Avanti to save the king (Friendship)
- He was a patricide (who kills his father).
- His policy - war. Ex:- Kasi, Vaisali, Malla, Kosala, etc.,
- He was assassinated by Sisunaga, Senapati.
- He built a fort at the confluence of Ganga.
- Sisunaga - Avanti was captured by him.
- Kalasoka - Shifted capital from Rajagir to Pataliputra. He was assassinated by Senapati, Mahapadmananda.
- Caste - Shudra
- Religion - Jain
- Mahapadmananda - Greatest among all Magadha rulers. First North Indian king conquered the South-India (upto Godavari region). Except two North-west Janapadas all were conqured by Nanda.
- Danananda (last ruler) - In 321 B.C, he was defeated by Chandra Gupta Maurya.
- Why Magadha rulers not touched the North-west Janapadas
- At that time the two Janapadas were conquered by Iranians (persians), They are greatest rulers in world.
- First foreigner who conquered India - Cyrus.
- Cyrus grandson "Darius" completed conquering the total North-west India.
- According to Heredotus,
- Among 28 provinces, India was one which gives 1/3 rd of income to Persians .
- Domination of Persians come to end (Sindu - Hindu) because of Alexander.
- Darius-II was defeated by Alexander.
- King of Taxila, "Ambhi" invited Alexander.
- Alexander was couple of years in India (327-326 B.C).
- Important battle is "Hydaspas".
- In 323 B.C, at Babilonia (Iron) Alexandar was died.
- King of Syria, Selucus Nickator (greek Emporer). He ruled India After Alexander.
- Introduction of metal coins (6th century B.C).
- Earliest coins - "Punch marked coins".
- These coins were unscripted made up of silver & copper.
- Emergence & Guild (SRENI - Sanskrit) system
- Means - Association of merchants & Traders.
- Kolika Sreni -Weapons manufacturing
- Kulala Sreni - Pots manufacturing
- Gandika Sreni - perfumes
Religious developments: 62 Hetrodox movements were born, against the Brahmanism.
- Buddha lived in 5th - 6th century.
- Tribe: Sakya
- Born in Kapila vastu (Nepal)
- Father : Suddodana
- Mother : Mahamaya
- Wife : Yasodara
- Son : Rahul
Pancha Mahakalyana: 5 great events in the life of Budha
- Birth: Lumbini
- Symbol : Lotus
- Original name : Siddharda
- Mahabhinishkramana (Age:29)
- symbol : Horse (Kantaka)
- In Gaya (Bihar), under Bodic tree (49 days) Age: 35.He became Buddha (Tatagatha - who knows truth).
- Symbol : Bodic tree
- 1st Lecture of Budha - Dharma chakra parivartana at saranath (near to kasi) attended by 5 people.
- Death of Budha (80 Years) in kushi (Kusinagara)
- Symbol : Sthupa
- Stupa : Buddist structure built on the ashes of Buddha or Buddist monks semi domical structure.
- Vihara / Arama : Residences of Buddist monks.
- Chaitya : Prayer hall
- 4 Noble Truths
- World is full of misery.
- Cause of this misery is greed.
- Conquering greed one can attain Nirvana.
- There is a way to prevent misery - marga.
- Astanga Marga (8 fold path)
- Right Actions
- Right Efforts
- Right Speech
- Right Livelihood
- Right Vision
- Right Awareness
- Right Aim
- Right Meditation
- Middle path : The extremes of every thing should be avoided.
- Pratyutta samuppada (cause & effect relationship)
|Anti changes. i.e., Reflects the any change incorporated in religion||Pro-change|
|Language - Pali||Language - Sanskrit|
|Nerver worship idols symbols worship (Stupa, tree, etc.,)||Idol worshipers|
- Bodhisattvas - previous births of Buddha
- Avalokitheswara (Padmapani)
- Manjusri (Born in Amaravathi)
- Padma Sambhava
- Maitreya - Future Buddha
|1||483 B.C||Raja Graha||Maha Kaiyapa||Ajata Satruvu||Documentation of Buddha's preachings||
|2||383 B.C||Vaishali||Sabakami||Kalashoka||Bridge of the gulf between 2 groups.||
|3||250 B.C||Pataliputra||Moggaliputta Tissa||Ashoka||Various issues||
|4||1st Century A.D||Kundalavana (Kashmir)||Vasumitra (Asvagosha)||Kanishka||To unite 18 sects & Buddhism||
- Moksha margas
- Sexual interpoles
- Sanghas started by Buddha
- Men as monks
- Women as nouns
- Amaravathi is birth place of Vajrayana
- Degeneration of Sanghas
- Give up of pali
- Idol worship
- Reform of Brahmanism
Jainism: 24 Tirthankaras -Ford makers
- 1st - Rishaba Natha / Adinatha
- Symbol - Bull
- 22nd - Neminatha / Aristra Neminatha
- Symbol - Shell
- 23rd - Parsvanatha (Parents - Ashrasenudu & Vamaladevi)
- Symbol - Snake
- Lived in 8th century B.C, Born in Royal family of Kashi. New religion was founded by him (Nigrantha).
- Nigrantgha - Free from the bonds of world.
- 4 Doctrines
- Asatya - Nonlying
- Ahimsa - Non injury
- Asateya - Non steeling
- Aparigraha - Non accumulation of wealth
- 24th - Vardamana Mahaveera
- Symbol : Lion
- Born in 540 B.C, at Kundagrama (Near to Vaishali, in Bihar)
- Kshatriya family - Jnatrika
- Father - Siddhardh
- Mother - Trishala devi
- Wife - Yashoda
- Daughter - Priyadarshi
- Son-in-law - Jamali
- At the age of 42, he reached the last stage i.e., trithankara.
- Kavali - Kaivalyagyana (ultimate state of knowledge)
- Jina - Conqueror (Become the master over the senses)
- Sallekhana - Extreme fast to death. Give maximum pain to your senses without taking water and food.
- He died in pava (72)
- Historical founder of Jainism - Parshanatha
Doctrines of Jainism:
- 4 given by Parshanatha
- 5th by Mahaveera. ie., Brahmacharya
- Samyak Kriya (Good actions)
- Samyak Gyana (Right knowledge)
- Samyak visvas (Faith)
- Approximately around 300 B.C
- Jains had been divided into 2 sects
- Swetambaras (white cloths) - Stulabhadra
- Digambaras (Discarded cloths) - Bhadra Bahu
- Swetambaras followers of 23rd trithankars
- Digambaras followers of 23rd trithankars
- Gomateswara son of 1st tirthankara.
- He was strong man and conquered many Rajyas so people called him as Bahubali. He was not a tirthankara.
Mahamasttabhisheka: For every 12 years in Sravana Belgala the people celebrating an ustavam.
Dwadasha Angas: Scriptures of Jainism. 12 Angas compiled in 6th century A.D at a conference held at "Vallabhi".
- By Makari Gosalaputta (Friend of Mahaveera).
- Very popular religion in Mauryan's age.
- Disappeared after 200 B.C.
- Central Theme : "Niyati (predetermination)" doctrine.
- Founder : Ajita kesha kambali
- Very radical philosophy
- Totally believed in Materialism (No life after death) and Ethism.
- Around 300 B.C - 12 Years famine in Maghada, 12000 monks left maghada, leader was Bhadra bahu and they bitted at Sravana Belgala and became digambaras. Chandra Gupta maurya died at Sravana Belgala.
- Huge statues of jain monk in Sravana Belgala called as Gomateswara/Bahubali.
- This status was built by Minister of Mysore state, Chamundaraya (10th century A.D).