September 13, 2014

Yellow pages for ancient Indian history class notes for Group-I, Group-II, Group-IV, Jr. Lecturers and Degree Lecturers, A.E.Es, DAO, S.I and Civil services prelims

Dear Aspirants, Here we are giving the basic knowledge of ancient Indian history. So, Aspirants like you need not struggle for material in searching. The basic concepts have been thoroughly explained here. It is useful for the competitive exams like Group-I and II, Group-IV, Jr. Lecturers and Degree Lecturers, A.E.Es, D.A.Os, S.I and Civil services prelims.

Pre-Historic Culture

Culture:- Living pattern / way of life / what you are.

Civilization:- What you have.

Advancement in materialistic development and Technology.

Features of civilization

a) Urban life
b) Script
c) Sophisticated technology
d) Materialistic development
e) Increasing use of metals (Alloys)

First civilization in India - Indus valley civilization (2500 BC).
The classification of ancient period on the basis of script is 2 types.
      1. Pre-historic Period
      2. Historic Period
1. Pre-historic Period:- 

The period where no script and records.
Not studied by any historians.

2. Historic Period:-

The age studied by historians.
Archaeologists name the culture based on metals, used to prepare weapons, coins, tools, etc.,
Earliest culture is named as stone age.
  • I. Old stone age (Paleolithic Culture)
  • II. Middle stone age (Mesolithic Culture)
  • III. New stone age (Neolithic Culture)
First metal used by human beings is "copper". Simultaneous use of stone and copper leads to fourth culture called copper-stone age.

Bronze Age Culture:- Bronze is an alloy (copper + tin)

Iron Age Culture:- In historians perspective Iron age is called as Aryan civilazation. The first four cultures are come under pre-historic cultures.

I. Paleolithic culture (Old stone age)

Bori Caves:- First evidence of Human beings in India (1.4 million years ago).

Pallavaram:- First paleolithic culture site (1863).

"Robert Bruce Foota", British Archaeologist identified the pallavaram site.

Archaeological survey of India (ASI) - 1861, First Director General - "Alexandar Cunningham".

Tools:- "Quartazite" is used to made all types of tools like blades, Hans axes, flakes, breeds, scrapads, etc.,

Race:- Homosapien (Human being with thinking capability)
  • Food hunting and food gathering are sources of economy.
  • Village communities were not formed. People were living as a Bands (Small group of people).
  • Pleistocene conditions (Extreme cold conditions).
  • Culture is determined by Geography.
  • Thousands of settlements were found at coastal areas except Kerala.

II. Mesolithic Culture (Middle stone age)

Man was so happy in this period because of comfortable conditions for living.
  • Holocene conditions (warming conditions).
  • Domestication of animals.
  • First demonstration of animals found at two sites.
    • Adamgar (Madhya Pradesh)
    • Bargor (Rajastan)
  • Construction of houses
    • First houses in India - Sarai Nahar Rai (U.P.)
  • Pottery
    • Mesolithic man started making pots.
    • First pots (hand made) in the world - Chopanimando (U.P.)
  • Microliths
    • The stone tools made by Mesolithic man were too small in range (1 cm - 8 cm). So these are called Microliths.
    • Bhimbetka:-
      • Mesolithic site in M.P (Narmada Region). So many paintings were found on the walls of rocks. This is one of the earliest art in the world.
    • UNESCO recognized it as world Heritage center.
    • Jantar-Mantar in Jaipur, recognized as world Heritage center recently by UNESCO, which was built by Sawai Jay Singh in 18th century.

III. Neolithic Culture (New stone age)
  • Agriculture
    • North India : Wheat, Barley.
    • South India : Ragi, Horse gram.
  • Villages were formed.
  • Mehargarh (Pak):-
    • First to take up agriculture in India sub continent. Mehargarh people invented cotton, potters wheel first time in world.
  • Koldthwa:-
    • First evidence of "rice" in world. Radio carbon or C14 method is used to find the dates of only organic materials. Half time decay of radio activity is 5568 yrs.
  • Burzahom:- Large number of ppt (horses under the earth) were found.
  • Chiran:- Large number of bone tools.
  • Karnataka sites:- Maski, Piklihal, Tekkela Kota (some gold ornaments were found), sanganakally.
  • Andhra Pradesh:- Nagarjuna Konda.
  • Tamil Nadu:- Piyomapally.
  • Assam:- Daojali Hading.
Chalcolithic Culture (Copper stone age)

Copper (3000 B.C.) - Bronze (2500 B.C.) - Iron (1000 B.C).
* Melting point of Iron is very high.
Most of the sites found at Rajastan because it is large source of copper.
  • Malwa region:- Kayatha, Navdatoli, Iran.
  • Maharashtra:- More than 200 sites. Jorwe, Inam gam, Chandoli, Daimabad.
  • Daimabad:- Population 4000
  • Cementry:- Burial ground, here skeletons does not have feets. Infent mortality rate (IMR) is very high (deaths of one year below children). people of daimabad has no dairy technology.