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September 22, 2014

Indian history about Vedic Aryan civilization hand notes for Group-I, Group-II, Group-IV, Jr.Lecturers and Degree Lecturers and Civil services prelims

Vedic/Aryan Civilization

Beginning of historical age because it has literature 700 sites were found.Painted grass wart was found in all those sites. So, this is also known as PWG civilization.

* Sources

Vedic literature - Not an isolated book.
It is massive one which as library full of books, Manuscripts were written from 400 A.D.
Vedic literature is sacral literature.
It is divided into 8 parts:
The First 4 are considered as Shruti Literature.

1. Vedas
2. Brahmanas
3. Aranyakas
4. Upanishads

The Next 4 are considered as Smriti Literature.

5. Vedangas
6. Puranas
7. Upavedas
8. Ethihasas (Epics)

Explanation as Follows

1. Vedas: Vedas are of 4 types.

a). Rigveda - 1028 Slokas. Gayatri Mantra address the goddess Savitri 10 chapters or mandalams.

10th chapter is important, Purushasukta.

* Purushasukta - First reference of caste system.

Every human being is created by Brahma from his home body but from different organs.

People created from the
  • Head of Brahma - Brahmanas
  • Shoulder of Brahma - Kshatriya's
  • Thies of Brahma - Vyshyas
  • Feet of Brahma - Shudras
b). Yajurveda: Describe about rituals. The biggest problem of rituals is there is no direct connection between the god and devotees.
c). Samaveda: This Veda gives importance to music. Slokas in Rigveda were tuned.

d). Atharvaveda: Describe prevention of diseases and evil spirits.

2. Brahmanas

Each Brahmana is associated with one of the 4 Vedas.
  • Rigveda
    • Aitareya Brahmana - First reference of Andhra.
    • Kaushitaki Brahmana
  • Yajurveda
    • Krishna Yajurveda
      • Taittiriya Brahmana
    • Shukla Yajurveda
      • Madhyandina Shakha
        • Shatapatha Brahmana, Madhyandina recension.
      • Kanva Shaka
        • Shatapatha Brahmana, Kanva recension.
  • Samaveda
    • Kauthuma and Ranayaniya shakhas
      • Tandya Mahabrahmana or Panchavimsha
      • Sadvimsha Brahmana
      • Samavidhana Brahmana
      • Arsheya Brahmana
      • Devatadhyaya or Daivata Brahmana
      • Chandogya Brahmana
      • Samhitopanishad Brahmana
      • Vamsa Brahmana
    • Jaiminiya Shakha
      • Jaiminiya Brahmana
      • Jaiminiya Arsheya Brahmana
      • Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana
  • Atharvaveda
    • Gopatha Brahmana

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