Dear Aspirants, Here we are giving the basic knowledge of ancient Indian history. So, Aspirants like you need not struggle for material in searching. The basic concepts have been thoroughly explained here. It is useful for the competitive exams like Group-I and II, Group-IV, Jr. Lecturers and Degree Lecturers, A.E.Es, D.A.Os, S.I and Civil services prelims.
ANDHRA PRADESH PRE-HISTORY
The study of the life journey of the early man in Andhra Pradesh as in the rest of India is now fairly well established through co-ordinate researches by Geologists, archaeologists, anthropologists, paleontologists and palaeobotanists. As a result, a very rich prehistory cultural background of Andhra Pradesh over a period of nearly 3 lakhs of years is projected. The evidence of man leading a hunting–gathering way of life (Paleolithic), and subsequently a well established food-producing economy (Neolithic), is discovered all over Andhra Pradesh. The Paleolithic period, as a whole, witnessed hunting-foraging activity though divided into three periods: Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic.
The earliest discoveries of Paleolithic cultural evidence date back to the 2nd part of 19th century in Andhra Pradesh. Robert Bruce Foote is said to be a pioneer in these studies.
LOWER PALEOLITHIC PERIOD
Various river valleys in Cuddapah basin, a geological formation, comprising Cuddapah, Kurnool, Chittoor, and Nellore, parts of Mahaboobnagar, Prakasam, Guntur and Nalgonda districts are rich in distribution of prehistoric cultures. Nallamalas, Palakondas and the Velikondas, the hill ranges of Eastern Ghats have proved to be the ideal habitats of the prehistoric man with abundant wild food resources. Lower Paleolithic evidence (comprising handaxes of various shapes, such as lancolates, oats, almonds, picks etc., and chappers, chopping tools, cleavers tools, cleavers, discoids and scrappers) is located in the above river valleys.
MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD
It comprises of evidence of tools of different shapes facilitating hafting, scrapers of different types of skinning, knifing, sharpening, borers (screw drivers) for making holes, miniature handaxes and cleavers. All this is bracketed between 1.5 to 40 lakhs of years.
UPPER PALEOLITHIC PERIOD
Blades and Blade tools characterize the Upper Paleolithic Age in Andhra Pradesh which can be compared with that of Europe. The tool kit included blades, knives, points, blunted back points, pen knives, borers, burins, a variety of scrapers made of stone while those of bone are points, awl points, burins, borers, scrapers, pins, needles and spatula like objects. It is bracketed between 30,000 to 10,000 B.C.
Billasargam group of caves yielded a variety of stone and bone tools in association with animal remains. They include monkeys, wild cat, wild dog, wild pig, tiger, leopard, horse, antelope, wild elephant, rhinoceros like bulbs, tubers, roots, fruits, nuts, leaves, etc. The aboriginal communities like Chenchu and Yanadi still exploit these wild resources.