June 06, 2015

A brief description of the list of the major important rivers in India


The Indian River system is classified as Himalayan, peninsular, coastal, and inland-drainage basin rivers and the important rivers of India are Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada and Tapti.

The rivers of India provide irrigation, cheap transportation, electricity, and livelihoods for a large number of people. The river system of India also holds significance from a religious point of view.

Rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indians. They provide potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihood for a large number of people all over the country. This easily explains why nearly all the major cities of India are located by the banks of rivers. The rivers also have an important role in Hindu Dharma and are considered holy by all Hindus in the country.

Seven major rivers along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India. The largest basin system of the rivers pour their waters into the Bay of Bengal. However, some of the rivers whose courses take them through the western part of the country and towards the east of the state of Himachal Pradesh empty into the Arabian Sea. Parts of Ladakh, northern parts of the Aravalli range and the arid parts of the Thar Desert have inland drainage.

All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds:
  • The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges
  • Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
  • Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India
The rivers is played very important role in providing irrigation water, drinking water, electricity, easy cheap transportation, other miscellaneous works has been done with the help of rivers.

The important rivers of India are Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada and Tapti.

A brief description of these rivers is given below


Ganga is the most holy river according to Hindu. It has started from the Gangotri in the Himalayas and poured into the Bay of Bengal by traveling of around 2525 km. It is ranked 3rd largest river in the world. There are a number of cities had been developed across the banks of Ganga like Pataliputra, Kashi, Allahabad, Varanasi, Kolkata etc. It had also created the World’s largest delta in West Bengal named as Sundarban delta. The largest river basin of India is the Ganga basin, which receives water from Himalayas in the north and the Vindhyas in the South. The Ganga, the Yamuna, the Ghagra, Gandak and Kosi are the main constituents of this basin. The Ganga and its tributaries such as Son, Yamuna, Budhi Khandak, Gandak, and Sabazpati have been omitted from the list, which originally creates the largest cultivable plains of northern and eastern India, named as the Gangetic plains. The principal river, the sacred Ganga is formed by the union of Andha and Alaknanda. Ganga originates from Gangotri glaciers(Gaumukh - 13,858 ft) in the Himalayan mountain range and gushes from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and then comes into West Bengal and Bangladesh. It finally finishes in the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh, where the name of the river is Padma.


Yamuna River had originated from Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas, then travels across several states and merged into the Ganga at Triveni, Allahabad. Its total length is 1376 km. Yamuna River’s water contributed nearly 70 percent of Delhi’s water supply. The Taj Mahal is situated on the banks of Yamuna River.


Brahmaputra River is originated from Angsi Glacier, the northen Himalayas in Tibet, then entered into the Arunachal Pradesh to Assam and then merges with the Padma river in Bangladesh. Its length is around 2900 km and plays an important role in the irrigation and transportation. It emptied into the Bay of Bengal. The Brahmaputra has the greatest volume of water of all the rivers in India. It is the source of the Indus and the Satluj and flows through Arunachal pradesh and Assam. The Brahmaputra starts off from the Mansarovar lake, which is also the place from where the Sutlej and the Indus have originated. It is somewhat longer than the Indus, however the greater portion of its itinerary is situated outside India. It runs to the east in China, adjacent to the Himalayas, known as Tsang-Po. When it arrives at Namcha Barwa (2900 m), it takes an about turn close to it and moves into India in Arunachal Pradesh and is named as Dihang.

Indus River

The Indus River is a historically famous in Asia. It originated from the Tibetan Plateau, and then flows through the Ladakh then entered into Pakistan and finally merge into the Arabian Sea after traveling a distance of 3180 km.

Mahanadi River

Mahanadi is a major river in the state of Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Mahanadi’s water is used in the irrigation and drinking purpose, it is also called the ruin of Orissa due its devastating floods over the years but till Hirakud Dam was constructed. Its total length is 858 km. The Mahanadi is an important river in the state of Orissa. This river flows slowly for 900 kms and deposits more silt than any other river in the Indian subcontinent.


Godavari is the longest river in the southern India and 2nd largest in India after Ganga. It is originated from Maharashtra and flows through Andhra Pradesh, then merges into the Bay of Bengal after traveling a distance of 1465 km.The river Godavari is the longest among all the rivers of South India. This river, which is 1584 Kilometers long originates in Western Ghats at Triyambak near Nasik in Maharashtra. It enters Andhra Pradesh near Basar in Adilabad District. It flows to a length of about 770 Kilometers in Andhra Pradesh. Some of the important tributaries of Godavari are Manjeera, Pranhita, Indravati, Kinnerasani, Sabari, Sileru e.t.c., An Anicut is built over this river at Dowleiswaram near Rajahmundry. At the lower reaches near Rajahmundry, Godavari divides into three major distributories called Gouthami, Vasishta and Vainateya and finally reaches Bay of Bengal after forming a delta. The Godavari River System has second longest course within India. The banks of this river have many pilgrimage sites like Nasik, Triyambak and Bhadrachalam.


The 3rd longest river in India after Ganga and Godavari, Krishna River which is originated from Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra and flows through the state of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and finally merges into the Bay of Bengal by traveling a distance of 1400 km.Originating in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, the river Krishna flows Eastwards and enters Andhra Pradesh at Thangadi in Mahaboobnagar District. After joining with its tributary Tungabhadra, at Sangam in Kurnool district, it flows across Srisailam, and Vijayawada and reaches Bay of Bengal near Hamsaladeevi. Its total length is 1440 Kilometers. The length of Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh is about 720 Kilometers. Prakasam Barrage was constructed on the Krishna river at Vijayawada, and a road was laid over it. At a distance of 64kilometers, from Vijayawada, the river Krishna divides into two distributories and again merge into one. The area in between these two distributories is called "Diviseema". Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was built across the river Krishna at Nandikonda. This Dam is one of the biggest dams in India. One more dam was constructed at Srisailam. Hydro-Electricity is also being generated from waters of the reservoirs of these dams. The important tributaries of the river Krishna are Tungabhadra, Dindi, Palem, Koyana, Varna, Panchagana, Musi, Bheema, Ghantaprabha, Munneru, etc. The Krishna is the third longest river in India with a length of about 1300 kms. It rises in the Western Ghats and flows east into the Bay of Bengal.


The Kaveri River is one of the large rivers in India which is originated from Talakaveri in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and flows through the states of Karnataka,Tamilnadu, finally merges into Bay of Bengal by traveling a distance of 765 km. The source of the Kaveri is located in the Western Ghats. It has many tributaries including Shimsha, Hemavati River, Arkavathy, Kapila, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and famous Amaravati. Kaveri is a major source of irrigation in Tamil Nadu.


Narmada River is the 5th Longest in the Indian sub-continent. It is also called the Life line of Madhya pradesh due to its huge contributions. Narmada River is originated from Narmada Kund, Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh and merges into the Arabian Sea near Gujarat after traveling a distance of 1312 km. The Narmada and the Tapti are the only major rivers that flow into the Arabian Sea. The total length of Narmada through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, and Gujarat amounts to 1312 kms. The Tapti follows a parallel course to the south of the Narmada, flowing through the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat on its way into the Gulf of Khambhat.


Tapti River is one of the major rivers in Central India. Its total length is around 724 km which flows through the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra and finally merges into the Gulf of Cambay of Arabian Sea near Gujarat.

April 23, 2015

Andhra Pradesh important projects, Power and Irrigation, Flood Control, Thermal Power, Irrigation, Purpose of the the Projects and Beneficiary States


1 Bhakra Nangal Project

The Project consists of :
  • Bhakra Dam (second highest in the world) 518 meters long, 226 meters height
  • Nangal Dam
  • Nangal hydel channels
  • 4 power houses (Biggest in Asia)
Satluj (Hoshiarpur district in Punjab) Power and Irrigation Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.
2 Damodar Valley Corporation Project (DVC)

The Project consists of :
  • Tilaiya Dam
  • Konar Dam
  • Maithon Dam
  • Panchet Hill Dam
  • Power houses at Bokaro, Durgapur and Chandrapura
Damodar Power, Irrigation, Flood Control. Bihar and West Bengal shared by M.P.
3 Hirakud Dam Project

The main dam is 4800 meters long, 28.9 meters height (World's largest mainstream dam).
Mahanadi Power and Irrigation Orissa
4 Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra (Tributary of river Krishna) Power and Irrigation Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
5 Mayurakshi Project Mayura Kshi Power and Irrigation West Bengal
6 Nagarjunasagar Project Krishna Power and Irrigation Andhra Pradesh
7 Gandak River Project Gandak (Tributary of Ganga) Power and Irrigation Bihar, U.P., Nepal (Joint venture of India and Nepal)
8 Kosi Project Kosi Flood Control, Power and irrigation Bihar
9 Farakka Project Ganga, Bhagirathi Power, Irrigation avoid accumulation of silt to improve navigation West Bengal
10 Beas Project Units
  • Beas-Satluj link
  • Beas Dam at Pong
  • Beas transmission system
Beas Irrigation and power Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
11 Rajasthan Canal Project Satluj in Punjab, Beas and Ravi Irrigation Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana
12 Chambal Project Units
  • Gandhisagar Dam
  • Rana Pratap Sagar Dam
  • Jawahar Sagar Dam
Chambal Power and Irrigation Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
13 Kakrapara Project Tapti Irrigation Gujarat
14 Nagpur Power Station Koradi Thermal Power Maharashtra
15 Ukai Project Tapti Power and Irrigation Gujarat
16 Tawa Project Tawa (Narmada) Irrigation Madhya Pradesh
17 Pochampad Project Godavari Irrigation Andhra Pradesh
18 Malaprabha Project Malaprabha Irrigation Karnataka
19 Durgapur Project Damodar Irrigation, navigation between Kolkata and Raniganj West Bengal and Bihar
20 Mahi Mahi Irrigation Gujarat
21 Mahanadi Delta Project Mahanadi Irrigation Odisa
22 Idukki Project Periyar Hydro Electricity Kerala
23 Koyna Project Koyan Hydro Electricity Maharastra
24 Upper Krishna Project Krishna Irrigation Karnataka
25 Ramaganga Multipurpose Project Chuisot stream near Kala Power and Irrigation Uttar Pradesh
26 Matatilla Multipurpose Project Betwa Power and Irrigation Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
27 Tehri Dam Project Bhilangana, Bhagirath Hydro Electricity Uttar Pradesh
28 Narmada Sagar Valley Project Narmada - Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra
29 Obra Power Station Obra Thermal Power Uttar Pradesh
30 Rihand Scheme Rihand Hydro Electricity Uttar Pradesh
31 Kundah Project Kundah Hydro Electricity and irrigation Tamil Nadu

April 03, 2015

Tourisim in Andhra Pradesh, APTDC Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation, List of Tourist places in Andhra Pradesh


Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation - APTDC is a State Government agency which promotes tourism in Andhra Pradesh. Some of the important tourist places in Andhra Pradesh includes, TTD, Srisailam, Charminar at Hyderabad, Husain sagar at Hyderabad, Golkonda Fort, Rishikonda beach at Vizag, Basara, Dharmapuri, Kaleswaram, Vemulawada, Nangnuru, Hanumakonda, Ramappa Temple, Bodhan, Yadagirigutta, Bugga Rameswaram, Bhadrachalam, Medak Church, Charminar, Macca mosque, Pancharamas, Kotappakonda, Mangalagiri, Chejerla, Nagarjuna Konda, Lepakshi, Puttaparthi, Ahobilam, Mahanandi, Mantralayam, Upamaka, Mukhalingam, Dwaraka Tirumala, Srikalahasthi, Annavaram, Arasavalli, Antarvedi, Ryali, Undavalli.


Basara is situated in Adilabad district. It is famous for Saraswathi Temple located on the bank of the river Godavari. This is one among the three Saraswathi Temples in India. Other two are located at Kashmir and Sringeri.


It is placed in Karimnagar district. It is famous for the temple of Lakshmi Narasimha Swami, located at the banks of the river Godavari.


It is situated in Karimnagar district. It is also called as DAKSHINA KASI. It has the history of two thousand years.


It is situated in Karimnagar district. It is known for the temple of Sri Raja Rajeswara Swami. Vemulawada Bhimakavi, who is contemporary to Nannaya, belongs to this place.


It is a village in Karimnagar district. There is a belief among the people that, the Eastern Chalukya king Raja Raja Narendra constructed 400 temples here.That is why this place is called on Nangnuru. At present there are only some black marble temples with extra ordinary architecture. One Silastupa was discovered here during excavations conducted here. On this stupa, we find Telugu and Kannada languages.


Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra constructed a thousand pillared temple here. This temple was dedicated to Lord Siva, Vishnu and Sun. But there are no idols in the temple. This temple stands as an example for the architectured skill of Kakatiyas. During the early period of Kakatiyas, it was their capital.


This is a Lord Siva temple, located at the village Palampeta, which is 50 Kms away from the Warangal in Warangal district. The pieces of architecture of this place was described as the poems on the stone. This temple was constructed by Recharla Rudra.


It is located in Nizamabad district. Here there are two mosques built by Aurangazeb.


It is located in Nalagonda district. It is nearly 50 Kms away from Hyderabad. It is famous for the temple of Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy


It is 40 Kms away from Hyderabad. It is famous for Prana Lingam. The Lingam which was installed here is very big one. Even tallest persons cannot embrace the Lingam and joined their hands.


It is located in Khammam district. Here there is a very famous temple of Lord Sri Rama. This temple is situated on the banks of river Godavari. One devotee of Sri Rama by name Kancherla Gopanna wrote several kirtanas about this God. These kirtanas were scribed on rock plates.


It is famous for its architecture. The construction of this church was started in 1914 and it was completed in the year 1924.


It was constructed by Mahammud Quli Qutub Shah in memory of the suppression of the plague quickly and successfully.


It is one among the biggest mosques in South India. In a single sitting, 1000 members can offer their prayer here.


A single Lingam was divided into 5 and installed in 5 Aramas. These 5 Aramas are
  • Draksharammam: It is located at Draksharammam of East Godavari district.
  • Komararamam: It is located at Samarlakota of East Godavari district.
  • Somaramam: It is located at Gunupudi (Bhimavaram) of West Godavari district.
  • Kshira Ramam: It is located at Palakollu of West Godavari district.
  • Amara Ramam: It is located at Amaravathi of Guntur district. This is also called as Amareswaram Temple. This 32 Kms away from Guntur. Amaravathi is famous for the Buddhist architecture.


It is located in Guntur district. The famous Trikoteswara Swamy Temple is there on the top of the hill. A great fair will be organized on the day of SIVARATHIRI every year.


It is located in Guntur district. The presiding deity on this place is famous as Panakala Narasimha Swamy.


It is located near Narsaraopet of Guntur district. There is an ancient temple called Kapoteswara Swamy Temple.


It is located in Guntur district. This was a famous Buddhist Centre. This was the capital of Ikhavakus. The remains of Buddhist Stupas are found here. The famous archeological museum is there in the nighty of Krishna River.


It is situated on the bank of river Krishna. This place located on the Rishabha giri hill. The Lord Siva Temple of this place is very ancient. It was mentioned in Mahabharata as well as in Puranas.  People says that the God Siva and the goddess Parvathi came to the earth in the forms of Mallikarjuna and Bhramarambika. The Krishna river in Srisailam is called as patelaganga. Sri Krishna Deva Raya constructed many Pavillions here.


This is a small village, situated in Hindupur taluque of Anantapur district. There is a famous Siva temple which was constructed with Vijayanagar architecture in 16th Century. This place is famous for its Nandi statue.


It is located near Dharmavaram of Anantapur district. There is world famous prasanti. Nilayam of Sri Satya Sai Baba. The devotees of Sri Satya Sai Baba visit this place from all parts of the world.


This place is located in Kurnool district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Lakshmi Nara Simha Swami. Here, there are Nava Narasimha Kshetras. This is one among the two schools of Sri Vaishnava tradition.


It is located near Srisailam. Here, the water is flowing always from the mouth of nandi idol.


It is situated on the bank of the river Tungabhadra in Kurnool district. This is the place where Sri Raghavendra Swami attained Sajiva Samadhi.


It is located in Visakhapatnam district. It was mentioned in the puranas also. It is famous for the temple of Sri Venkateswara.


It is situated on the bank of Vamsadhara, 50 Kms away from Srikakulam. It is famous for the temples of Mukhalingeswara Swami, Bhimeswara Swami and Someswara Swami. The people says that the Goddess Durga came to the earth for the protection Bhuvaraha murthy to protect the KSHETRA MAHIMA. Here, there is a beautiful architecture.


This place is famous not only in the state but also in the entire India. There is famous temple of Sri Venkateswara. This temple situated at Tirumala at the height of 2800 feet from the sea level. The statue of Sri Krishna Deva Raya was installed here in his life time only. The Tower and Dhvajastambham of the temple are very big in size. According to the specifications of Ramanuja the Puja and Archanas are conducting even to this day.


It is located in West Godavari district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Venkateswara.


It is situated on the bank of the river of Swarnamukhi river in Chittoor district. According to the stalapuranam, among the Panchabhutalingas this is one of that and is called as Vayulingam.


It is famous for the temple of Satyanarayana Swami. The devotees who came here, will perform Satyanarayana Vratas.


It is located in Srikakulam district. It is famous with the Suryanarayana Swami temple. In addition to this there are only two Surya temples in India.


It is located in East Godavari district. It is famous for the temple of Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swami.


It is in East Godavari district. The famous Jaganmohini Chennakesava Swami is located here. The idol of this temple appear in two forms. It will appear as Chennakesava Swami from the front side and as Jaganmohini from the back side.


This village situated in Guntur district, 5 Kms away from Vijayawada. There is a four storied Buddhist cave temple in this village. In the second there is a sanctum sanatorium with 16 Mandapas. In that sanctum sanatorium, the idol of Narasimha Swami was installed. In the third floor, there is a idol Ananta Padma Nabha Swami. The length of this idol is 17 feet.